什么是覆盖镜头Coverage

Coverage, in filmmaking and video production, is the amount of footage shot and different camera angles used to capture a scene. When in the post-production process, the more camera coverage means that there is more footage for the film editor to work with in assembling the final cut.The initial recording of a scene is usually done with a master shot, a shot wide enough to capture the action in its entirety. But screening the whole scene from a single wide shot would be boring, not to mention all the detail that would be missed.

Ergo crafting a film involves recording a scene from different camera angles using different shot sizes to emphasize important elements of the film, such as a gun in someone’s hand or a tear in someone’s eye. This use of subsequent camera setups is known as coverage. Coverage is important not only to keep things dynamic and exciting within the scene, but also to ease the editing process of the movie.

Observe the example of coverage below from The Thomas Crown Affair (1968). All the shots combined together make the scene very interesting, especially as it contains very elaborate compositions and as it focuses on character’s facial expressions.

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-align: baseline;">Among the several types of shots, we find in the example above long shots, medium shots, close-ups, ECUs, high-angles, inserts, and reactions. In the movie, the scene is practically silent. Yet the amazing coverage is able to convey emotions and tensions.

r: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; color: rgb(31, 9, 9); font-family: "PT Serif"; line-height: 1.5em; text-decoration: underline;">shot list, and thus define how the coverage will be. Before principal photography starts, the director should know where the camera will be and what or who it will shoot. A movie with poor coverage always feels awkward, for it t-family: "PT Serif"; line-height: 1.5em; text-decoration: underline;">invisible editing.

Measure

Measure

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

特效网站和杂志

2020/04/01 23:41 PM posted in  特效

Final Cut Pro X 使用技巧

最新版本只可在MacOS 10.14.6以上系统中使用

工程管理 FCP X Media Management Tips

Library
新建之后需要设置

设置媒体的存储位置
默认存储在Library中,但是推荐设置到指定路径,这样所有媒体文件不会包含在工程之中,有利于减小工程文件的大小

设置Motion Content的存储位置
默认存储在

设置Cache的存储位置
默认存储在Library中

设置Backups的存储位置

如何减少工程文件的大小?
删除生成的资源库文件

可对项目中的事件进行转码Proxy,然后切换到proxy模式下
所生成的文件在对应的文件夹

常用快捷键

Alt 【】修剪工具

选中全部素材然后alt 【】可以全部进行修剪
不选择则会修建最上一层素材

可以利用鼠标移动到指定位置然后alt 【】一键修剪

导入素材的时候勾选以下选项
Screen Shot 2020-01-14 at 1.37.55 A

多利用标签索引功能

素材最好都分别放到事件中,不然匹配原始素材的时候会很难找到对应素材,
不是文件夹方式的匹配源

字幕可保存预设,这样不用每一次都重新进行调整

可以选择素材范围标记喜欢在
利用这个功能剪辑助理可以标记对白,提醒剪辑师

输出xml给到 AAF文件时候
不能有复合片段,不能有静音片段
不能加载FCPX的音效插件,如果加载后可能造成片段没有。

错误案例
Zoom录制的声音是多个单声道文件,FCPX同步之后只能和其中一个单声道文件同步到一起,当用 同步的声音必须是唯一的文件,比如录制了好几个声音,可能就链接不上了。

Cmd-Shift-R 直接显示文件在文件夹中

2020/02/21 22:50 PM posted in  剪辑

声音软件和插件

免费音效搜索软件:

MetaDigger - https://www.sound-ideas.com/Page/meta...
Mutant - http://sonicwire.com/mutant?lang=en
SearchEverything - https://www.voidtools.com/

付费音效搜索软件Pro (Paid) Sound Effect Search Programs:

SoundMiner (Recommended) - http://store.soundminer.com/
BaseHead - http://www.baseheadinc.com/
Soundly - http://www.getsoundly.com/

iZotope RX

去噪音去回声
所属公司:iZotope
官网:https://www.izotope.com/
兼容系统:
Mac: OS X 10.8.5 Mountain Lion–macOS 10.15 Catalina
PC: Win 7–Win 10
兼容宿主:
Premiere Pro CC 2018, Pro Tools 10–12

Speakerphone

扬声器模拟插件:提供各种设备的声音
所属公司:Audio Ease
官网:https://www.audioease.com/

Reverb类

Space Impulse Response Library

所属公司:Avid

indoor

环境模拟插件:提供各种环境的声音
所属公司:Audio Ease
官网:https://www.audioease.com/

https://accusonus.com/products/audio-repair/era-bundle-pro#era-d-anchor

ERA 4

脚步声插件Tovusound Edward Foleyart Instrument

Avid Channel Strip
Avid De-Esser
Avid AIR Frequency Shifter
Avid AIR Ensemble
Avid Pro Series Multiband Dynamics
Avid Pro Series Pro Harmonic
Avid Channel Strip 2

Soundtoys Little Alterboy
Soundtoys Effects Rack
https://www.soundtoys.com/

2020/03/02 02:22 AM posted in  声音

Pro Tools 技巧

01文件夹和工程设置

在项目名文件夹下(例如:Agent 86)建立如下文件夹

  • Turnover(来自剪辑部门的文件,比如参考demo的视频文件,AAF文件等)
  • Music(作曲给的音乐文件,临时音乐文件,音乐库文件)
  • ADR(cue过的ADR工程,录制好的ADR工程)
  • Foley(cue过的Foley工程,录制好的Foley工程)
  • Editorial(对白剪辑工程,声音设计工程,音效剪辑工程,环境音效剪辑工程等)
  • Mix(混音工程)
  • Deliverables (最终输出 的文件)
工程起点

默认设置为01:00:00:00
如果视频有一分钟的leader或者pre-roll,可以设置为00:59:00:00开始
其他时间长度的pre-roll参照如上

时间码帧率

一定要设置成项目对应的帧率

标尺区显示设置

只留下标记显示

网格和微移设置

设置为1帧可以进行微调

选中右方四个智能工具
工程自动备份设置

保持20个最近的备份
备份文件每3分钟

02建立轨道和组织轨道

五大声音家族

  • 对白dialogue
  • 音效sound effects
  • 拟音Foley
  • 背景音 Backgrounds
  • 音乐 Music

为对白建立8个轨道 (配置为蓝色)

  • DX 1
  • DX 2
  • DX 3
  • DX 4
  • PFX 5(拍摄现场录制的音效)
  • PFX 6
  • X 7(临时的一个轨道,可能用于放置最终的对白)
  • FUTZ 8(需要单独处理的对白,比如电话声音)

为音效建立8个轨道,其中四个单声道,四个立体声(配置为黄色)

  • FX 1 MON
  • FX 2 MON
  • FX 3 MON
  • FX 4 MON
  • FX 5 ST
  • FX 6 ST
  • FX 7 ST
  • FX 8 ST

为拟音建立8个轨道,其中六个单声道,两个立体声(配置为橙色)

  • FOL 1 MON
  • FOL 2 MON
  • FOL 3 MON
  • FOL 4 MON
  • FOL 5 MON
  • FOL 6 MON
  • FOL 7 ST
  • FOL 7 ST

为背景音效建立8个轨道,其中两个单声道,六个立体声,分配为两组背景音效(配置为绿色)

  • BG A 1 MON
  • BG A 2 ST
  • BG A 3 ST
  • BG A 4 ST
  • BG B 1 MON
  • BG B 2 ST
  • BG B 3 ST
  • BG B 4 ST

为音乐建立8个立体声轨道,分配为两组音乐(配置为紫色)

  • MX A 1
  • MX A 2
  • MX A 3
  • MX A 4
  • MX B 1
  • MX B 2
  • MX B 3
  • MX B 4

为什么都建立8个轨道呢,因为在混音阶段一个推子默认绑定的轨道数量是8

在00:59:58:00处添加 2 pop

输入Shift+Alt+3,创建一帧的空白声音,然后打开插件signal generator,利用插件渲染-20db,1000Hz的声音到这个空白片段。然后将这个声音添加到所有的轨道,每个声音家族的第一轨道不静音,其他全部静音。立体声对应需要两个单声道声音来复制。
为什么要创建这个2 pop 呢?
可以帮助我们很好的注意到没有同步的轨道。

导入定剪视频和AAF/OMF文件

视频导入的时候,位置选择定点Spot
勾选导入来自文件的声音

然后将视频中的2 pop 声音和轨道中的声音进行同步对齐

导入工程数据的时候,查看AAF的起始时间码是否和工程一致
导入之后和视频的声音对其看波形是否一致。

对白剪辑

勾选独奏模式中的X-OR
通过Shift+S 独奏选择的轨道,在多轨道的对白声音中挑选最好的一个轨道声音复制到建立好的对白轨道中(注意一场戏中,一个演员尽可能的占用一个轨道)
然后把剪辑添加的音效或者现场录制的音效复制到对应的轨道中。
对于两个片段之间空白的声音,尽可能得使用录制的声音的余量中寻找合适的部分填充这些空白。

可以将不清楚的声音拖到X 7轨道进行临时的保存,重命名这些片段,这样可以保留挑选出来的声音,以备后续的调用。
然后对于这些不清楚的声音进行单独的处理,比如利用EQ或者去燥音的插件处理。
然后给这些处理过的片段重命名,这样能让混音的人知道这些片段做过处理,比如命名为前缀加EQed,意思调整过EQ。然后讲这些片段配置不同的颜色,颜色就是不同于当前轨道的颜色,这样容易区分。

对于出现的齿音吧嗒声click,可以用画笔工具在SLIP模式下画线去除。

最后保存副本到文件夹,勾选音频文件选项。
命名为xxx_editorial_DXEdit_0328_Zhao

快捷键

A 剪掉之前
S 剪掉之后
D 淡入
G 淡出
F 叠化

Cmd+Alt+V 匹配粘贴
Alt 点击可恢复
Cmd 可缓慢推推子

Shift+S 独奏选择的轨道

2020/03/28 00:24 AM posted in  声音

‘Ford v Ferrari’ Sound Editors Explain Mixing Sound for Film | Vanity Fair

2020/03/25 01:41 AM posted in  声音

声音团队的组成

production recordist 现场录音师

Sound Editor 声音剪辑

Sound Mixer 混音师

production sound mixer 现场混音师

sound supervisor 声音总监

sound designer 声音设计

re-recording Mixer

Supervising Sound Editor 首席声音剪辑

recording mixer 现场录音师
收音员 Boom Operator

2020/03/22 18:42 PM posted in  声音

著名的声音后期公司和声音设计

Skywalker Sound 天行者声音

官网:https://www.skysound.com/

Ben burtt
星球大战

Randy Thom


个人网站:https://randythomblog.wordpress.com/

sometimes think of the work as being about 33% art, 33% craft, and 33% human relations. I’m always disappointed when I see 95% of the energy in discussions about sound design being devoted to the craft part. It’s the easiest aspect to talk about, and the easiest to accomplish.

Will Files
参与制作第一部杜比全景声电影

Walter Murch
教父

2020/03/01 13:48 PM posted in  声音

声音设计学习

学习Protools
到外面录制收集声音

音量,远近大小
音调,远近
音色,辨识度

2020/03/23 00:16 AM posted in  声音

声音部门和其他电影部门的合作

声音后期团队和剪辑团队的合作

声音后期团队可安排其中一名成员到剪辑团队中协助工作,帮助剪辑师和导演在剪辑的过程中实时对声音进行剪辑和混音。
主要职责有:

  • 剪辑对白
  • 剪辑音效
  • 剪辑音乐
  • 预混(temp mix)

剪辑定稿之后要给制片方或者导演进行试映,以前的流程是将混音工作交给声音团队处理,而试映后通常有几轮的修改,每一次剪辑版本的改变都需要声音团队重新混音,由此浪费了很多工作精力。而现在改进的流程则是在剪辑软件中进行对白的优化,声相的处理,以及预混等工作。

2020/03/22 19:07 PM posted in  声音

现场录音

impulse responses 简称IR
可以录制气球破裂的声音,然后在protools中导入到Convolution Reverb插件中,模拟真实环境的声音。

2020/03/22 20:56 PM posted in  声音

剪辑团队的组成

2020/03/22 19:05 PM posted in  剪辑

What is “Knee” on a Compressor?(压缩器中的“拐点”是什么?)

作者: Joe Gilder

Last night About2Flip commented on the Intro to Compression video:

Again Great Video!!! But what does KNEE do? I have been searching for almost a year now.

The knee function on a compressor is not as important as the ratio, attack or release functions. However, it can still be a useful tool, and it deserves a little attention. Thanks for asking, About2Flip.

Take a look at this screenshot of a compressor plugin:

knee-1

The orange vertical line is the threshold. The diagonal line to the left of the threshold represents the signal before compression is applied. The line to the right of the threshold represents the signal after it crosses the threshold. The higher the ratio, the more compression occurs, and the “flatter” this line becomes.

In case you haven’t guessed yet, the knee of this diagram is where the white line meets the orange threshold line. The white line begins to bend at this point, and it kind of looks like a bent knee.

The knee allows you to determine how curved this transition is. In the picture above, you see that the knee is set to zero, this means there is an immediate transition from no compression to 13.7:1 compression.

But what if you wanted the compression to slowly kick in? What if you wanted it to only compress the signal a little bit when it first crosses the threshold and compress it progressively more as it gets louder? That’s where the knee comes in.

Notice in this picture I’ve cranked up the knee control. As you can see, the “bend” in the line is much more curved, indicating a slow, smoothe transition into “full compression” mode.

knee-2

This is the kind of thing you’ll need to play around with, but basically, if you want the compressed sound to “sneak up” on you a little more, try increasing the knee. That way there won’t be an obvious transition from the uncompressed to the compressed sound.

I like a softer knee on things like vocals and piano. However, on more percussive, choppier tracks, like drums or strummed guitar, a low knee tends to work better.

Does that help? Do you use a “hard” or “soft” knee when compressing? Leave a comment.

原文链接:https://www.homestudiocorner.com/what-is-knee-on-a-compressor/

2020/03/22 16:17 PM posted in  声音

Quick and Easy Dialogue Cleanup with RTAS(Avid Media Composer中快速简单的对白清理技巧)

作者:Evan

On Star Trek Into Darkness I had the opportunity to break out of my usual Assistant Editor responsibilities and tackle a new experiment in temp sound editing. Will Files, Matt Evans, Robby Stambler and I formed a new mini-department within Editorial that was tasked with temping out the Editors’ sequences and mixing them in 5.1. There’s a lot to the process that is new and interesting, and I hope to get another post up soon that more fully flushes it all out, but for the moment all I want to talk about is a method for basic, global dialogue cleanup that is probably old hat to some (and par for the course for professional sound mixers), but was new and amazing to me.

This tip comes courtesy of Will Files, who as a loan-out from Skywalker Sound was the guy who guided this whole process on Trek and helped teach me, Matt, and Robby the ropes of the sound world.

RTAS Is Your Friend

Before this show, I didn’t really know what RTAS was useful for, much less how awesome it really is. It allows you to use many of the AudioSuite plugins that you would normally apply to a clip, and apply them to an entire track instead, without rendering (thus the RT in Real-Time Audio Suite). Up to five RTAS plugins can be chained together per track. When applied to dialogue tracks, you can chain together 3 RTAS plugins that will make your dialogue much more understandable and leave more room in other frequencies for your sound effects and music.

So, to get started, you have to show the expanded audio controls in your timeline, and make your track size big enough that you see the little RTAS boxes:

RTAS

You can see that I have an EQ, a Compressor, and a De-Esser, in that order, on my dialogue tracks. Let’s go through them:

1) EQ

The EQ you add here is basically a band pass with a little customization. Everything below 60Hz is gradually stripped away, as well as everything above 12kHz. This is because your typical dialogue won’t produce any audio in those frequencies that you want to keep, but by throwing it away you can start to address issues of boominess, high frequency hiss, and other technical problems with your production audio that get in the way of understanding the dialogue.

Aside from the band pass, this EQ also lowers frequencies around 120Hz by 2db, and raises frequencies around 4kHz by 2db. Again, this helps with boosting the frequencies of your dialogue that are most useful for comprehension, and removing frequencies that tend to get in the way, but without being as blunt as the band pass since these are frequencies you do want to hear.

RTAS EQ

2) Compressor

Now that you’ve removed unwanted frequencies, it’s time to normalize the volume. For that you use a Compressor, which will actively limit how loud your dialogue can get. If it gets too loud and crosses our set threshold, the Compressor will bring it back in line. The more the volume goes past the threshold, the more it will be reined in. This helps make sure there are no loud surprises in your dialogue, and will save you some of the hassle of mixing loud clips down to a more comfortable listening level.

In this case, we’ve modified three of the settings from their default states:

  1. Knee = 6.0 db. This adds a little curve right at the threshold point, so that the ratio of a loud input level to its compressed output level is approached more smoothly. Without it, the compression would switch on at full force when the volume crosses the threshold. For a better explanation of this, read this article.
  2. Threshold = -20db. By moving this up 4db from the default -24db, we’ve allowed our audio to be a bit louder before it activates the compressor.
  3. Gain = 4db. This knob controls the output level of all audio passing through the Compressor, even audio that is below the threshold line. Since compression only reduces volume and can leave your dialogue levels feeling too low, adding a bit of make-up gain can help keep it at a good baseline.

Compressor

3) De-Esser

This one does exactly what its name implies, and helps with any S sounds in your dialogue that can be particularly piercing to listen to. It’s basically another type of compressor that handles high frequencies instead of high decibel levels. On this we’ve set:

  1. Frequency = 5.4 kHz. This means the De-Esser will be triggered for frequencies above 5.4kHz.
  2. Range = -3.0db. When the De-Esser is triggered, it will reduce the gain of the signal by up to 3 db, which should help reduce the effects of any piercing audio.

De-Esser

As Quick as A-B-C

For those short on time, I’ve attached an Avid bin called Dialogue RTAS Effects.avb to this article which contains these three presets. They are labeled A, B, and C and should be applied to your RTAS chain in that order.

Tip: To quickly copy RTAS effects from one track to another, hold down Option and drag the effects you want to copy from one track’s RTAS chain to another.

Attachments:

原文链接https://www.evanschiff.com/bd/articles/quick-and-easy-dialogue-cleanup

2020/03/22 16:06 PM posted in  声音

Film Sound Tutorials - sound design and mixing tutorials for film 电影声音教程 - 电影声音设计和混音教程

Tutorial 1: Beginning a Session - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 1st tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about organizing and setting up your session to being the sound editorial process.
You can watch the released film here:
https://vimeo.com/129326298. Please note that there is mature content (swearing) in the film.

Tutorial 2: Track Creation and Organization - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 2nd tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about creating your editorial tracks and then adding a 2 POP.

Tutorial 3: Importing Picturelock and AAF/OMF - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 3rd tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about importing your picturelock video file and your AAF/OMF file and then ensuring that everything is in sync.

Tutorial 4: Dialogue Editing - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 4th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about selecting the cleanest takes on a shot by shot basis, finding fill, and cleaning up your takes.

Tutorial 5: Editing Backgrounds - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 5th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about finding mono and stereo files to create your backgrounds.

Tutorial 6: Sound Effects Editing - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 6th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about finding mono and stereo files to cut your sound effects.

Tutorial 7: Foley Cueing and Editing - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about the four-step process of cueing, recording, editing, and re-integrating your foley into your main session. This is the 7th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 8: Editing ADR and Group Dialogue - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about editing ADR (Automated Dialogue Replacement) and Group/Walla dialogue. This is the 8th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 9: Music Stems Editing - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about editing music stems and score. This is the 9th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 10: Arranging Music for Changed Picturelock - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about editing a score to fit a new picturelock. This is the 10th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 11: Track Groups and Stereo Panning Automation - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about creating track groups and creating panning automation for stereo environments . This is the 11th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 12: VCA Tracks and Submaster AUX Track Busses - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

In this video, we talk about creating VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier) tracks and using busses for our submaster aux tracks. This is the 12th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films.

Tutorial 13: Pre-Mixing Volume Levels (Pre-Dubbing) - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 13th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about pre-mixing the volumes of the various audio families before adding various mixing plugins. We also talk about basic mixing techniques, types of audio metering plugins, Pro Tools volume automation, and various Pro Tools tips.

Here's my website for helpful links, templates, and sample projects: https://soundtuts.com/

Tutorial 14: EQ-ing using Inserts and AudioSuite Plugins - Post-Production Audio Workflow Series

This is the 14th tutorial of the series to learn how to sound design and mix for films. In this video, we talk about EQ-ing the various audio families using the default Pro Tools EQ plugin. We also talk about Pro Tools automation, EQ-ing ADR (Automated Dialogue Replacement), AudioSuite plugins, and various Pro Tools tips.

Recommended Paid EQs:

  • FabFilter Pro-Q 3
  • DMGAudio EQuality
  • Waves Q10 Equalizer

特别感谢系列教程作者:Michael Cullen

作者推荐的免费音效库Recommended Free Libraries:

http://99sounds.org/
http://www.sonniss.com/gameaudiogdc2017/
http://www.sonniss.com/gameaudiogdc2016/
http://www.sonniss.com/sound-effects/...
http://www.asoundeffect.com/1000-free...
http://www.gameaudioimplementation.co...
https://www.redlibraries.com/#panel29...
http://www.thesoundkeeper.com/shop/
https://www.reddit.com/r/SFXLibraries/

2020/02/21 12:18 PM posted in  声音

电影公益组织

2020/03/02 11:48 AM posted in  电影资料馆

声音处理技巧

零点剪辑,切勿在声音波形最高或最低处剪切,如果已经定剪,需要加10ms的过渡,以免发生pop破音

吸附移动片段工具

快捷键 Control移动片段到指定位置

标记同步点,然后移动片段到指定位置

VCA master

的应用

可以控制群组里多轨道的电平大小

替换片段和自动匹配片段

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

声音硬件推荐

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

VFX Shot and Version Naming Recommendations

Reference Tables

For those who are experienced with VFX shot naming, the tables below provide quick reference on best practice recommendations for formulating VFX shot names. The rest of this document provides a more in-depth explanation of VFX shot naming.

Shot Name and Version Name Fields: Usage reference table

Field (Example) Best practice recommendation for usage
showID (AGM) Required for series projects (except optional for IO). Optional for all other project types.
episode (104) Required for all series projects. Not applicable for features.
seq (TCC) Optional. (Not all projects get broken down by sequence)
scene (067) Optional but required if project naming does not use sequences.
shotID# (0010) Required
task (comp) Encouraged (helps quickly identify the type of work that will appear in a given version)
vendorID (NFX) Required for series projects (except optional for IO). Encouraged for all other project types.
version# (v001) Required. Must begin with ‘v’.

Series: Example shot name options

No sequence No scene Both sequence and scene
showID_episode_scene_shotID# showID_episode_seq_shotID# showID_episode_seq_scene_shotID#
AGM_104_065_010 AGM_104_TCC_0010 AGM_104_TCC_065_0010
AGM_104_065_020 AGM_104_TCC_0020 AGM_104_TCC_065_0020
AGM_104_066_010 AGM_104_TCC_0030 AGM_104_TCC_066_0030
AGM_104_066_020 AGM_104_TCC_0040 AGM_104_TCC_066_0040
AGM_104_066_030 AGM_104_TCC_0050 AGM_104_TCC_066_0050
AGM_104_066_040 AGM_104_TCC_0060 AGM_104_TCC_066_0060
AGM_104_067_010 AGM_104_TCC_0070 AGM_104_TCC_067_0070
AGM_104_067_020 AGM_104_TCC_0080 AGM_104_TCC_067_0080

Version example: AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v001

Feature: Example shot name options

No sequence No scene Both sequence and scene
showID_scene_shotID# showID_seq_shotID# showID_seq_scene_shotID#
AGM_065_010 AGM_TCC_0010 AGM_TCC_065_0010
AGM_065_020 AGM_TCC_0020 AGM_TCC_065_0020
AGM_066_010 AGM_TCC_0030 AGM_TCC_066_0030
AGM_066_020 AGM_TCC_0040 AGM_TCC_066_0040
AGM_066_030 AGM_TCC_0050 AGM_TCC_066_0050
AGM_066_040 AGM_TCC_0060 AGM_TCC_066_0060
AGM_067_010 AGM_TCC_0070 AGM_TCC_067_0070
AGM_067_020 AGM_TCC_0080 AGM_TCC_067_0080

Version name example: AGM_065_010_comp_NFX_v001

VFX Shot Name Intro

A shot is a portion of edited material that spans from cut point to cut point. Each shot that includes VFX work receives a defined shot name for VFX to use for tracking purposes. This name is usually set by editorial using a predefined naming convention. Using a predefined VFX naming convention helps ensure consistency in naming across an entire project.

Why not just use slate names?

One slate might be used across multiple different VFX shots, making it more difficult to track the difference from one VFX shot to the next. Multiple shots with varying slates often get combined into a single composited shot, making the choice for the shot name overly ambiguous.

Who is responsible for shot naming?

Naming is often done by a VFX Editor or an assistant editor. It's helpful to have a role embedded with editorial naming shots as editorial identifies them as requiring VFX work, so expectations between VFX and editorial are aligned on which shots require VFX work. Editorial and VFX both tracking names allows VFX to be able to cross check lists from editorial and make sure they aren’t missing anything or working on material that editorial doesn't expect VFX to do work on.

Difference between Shot Name and Version Name

A Shot Name is used to track the overall status of the work for a particular shot. A Version Name is a single iteration of that shot and includes some additional information that will vary with each iteration of the shot that’s submitted. Version information is logged to help keep track of information such as which version received a particular note, or which version is approved in the cut.

Screen_Shot_2019-09-17_at_7.39.21_P

Shot: AGM_104_065_010 (shot = showID + episode + scene + VFX ID)

Version: AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v005 (version = shot + task + vendorID + version)

Shot Fields:

  • showID (AGM)
  • episode (104)
  • seq (TCC)
  • scene (067)
  • shotID# (0010)

Version Fields:

  • task (comp)
  • vendorID (NFX)
  • version# (v001)

In the example below you can see the approved shot AGM_104_067_0010 has the overall status of approved and 5 versions were generated for it, one of which got approved and will end up in the final cut:

AGM_104_065_0010 - Approved

​ AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v001 - Not Approved

​ AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v002 - Not Approved

​ AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v003 - Not Approved

​ AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v004 - Not Approved

​ AGM_104_065_010_comp_NFX_v005 - Approved

There are many other pieces of information that can be tracked against shots and versions beyond “approved” and “not approved” (such as “scope of work”, “assigned vendor”, “cost”, “notes”, etc.). The above example has been simplified to demonstrate the difference between a shot name and a version name.

Shot and Version fields

Shot and version names are composed of fields that are often separated by underscores. These fields can help identify information about a shot by looking at the file name. These fields can also help automatic tools sort and organize files by their names.

A shot name that uses all of the field options may look something like this:

AGM_104_TCC_067_0010_comp_NFX_v001

(showID_episode_seq_scene_shotID#_task_vendorID_Version)

Shot Fields

showID

  • A 2-3 character abbreviation for the project name.
  • Example: AGM = A Great Movie
  • Usage: Required for series projects (except optional for IO). Optional for all other project types.

episode

  • A 3 digit season and episode code. The first digit indicates the season the episode is in. The following digits indicate the episode number within the season.
  • Example: 104 = season 1, episode 4
  • Usage: Required for all series projects. Not applicable for features.

sequence

  • A sequence is a 2-3 character abbreviation for a collection of scenes that are considered a VFX sequence. Sequences can also be assigned to numbers.
  • Example: TCC = The Car Chase
  • Usage: Optional. (Not all projects get broken down by sequence)

scene

  • Scene number from the portion of the script that a VFX shot came from. Usually appears on the slate.
  • Example: 067 = shot comes from scene 67
  • Usage: Optional but required if project naming does not use sequences.
  • Note: Sometimes scene numbers will appear with letters appended to them to indicate inserted scenes, camera setups or plate shoots. Letters can be ignored for shot naming purposes. It's usually simpler to manage shot names without including any scene letters for overall consistency of file naming.

shotID#

  • 3-4 digit identifying number assigned chronologically by sequence or by scene.
  • Numbers are typically assigned chronologically by sequence or scene and usually increments by 10s, so if a VFX shot is later identified between ID 0010 and ID 0020 it can be given an ID in between, such as 0015
  • Example: 0010 = shot’s assigned ID number is 0010
  • Usage: Required.

Version Fields

Task

  • Type of work rendered. “comp” for work rendered by a compositing department, “anim” for work rendered by an animation department, etc.
  • Example: comp = version was rendered by vendor’s compositing department
  • Usage: Encouraged (helps quickly identify the type of work that will appear in a given version)

vendorID

  • Short abbreviation for vendor that produced the work.
  • Example: NFX = version was generated by vendor named Netflix VFX
  • Usage: Required for series projects (except optional for IO). Encouraged for all other project types.
  • Tip: In addition to quickly letting you identify the originating vendor of any version, the vendorID field helps ensure you’ll never have 2 versions named exactly the same way when multiple vendors are working on a single shot.

version

  • 3-4 digit number starting with ‘v’ that indicates the version number of the version.
  • Example: v001 = first iteration of a shot submission
  • Usage: Required. Must begin with ‘v’.

Fully formed version name

When using all of the example fields above, you get the following shot name:

AGM_104_TCC_067_0010_comp_NFX_v001

Depending on specific needs, version naming may vary slightly from project to project, but inclusion or exclusion of naming fields should never vary by vendor or by shot within the same project.

2020/03/02 16:12 PM posted in  特效

特效镜头输出格式要求

文件名是特效编号,特效镜头编号唯一而且固定。比如VFX_0010是第一个镜头
前后景素材文件名前面一样,后面有区别,有前后特效素材可加后缀名
不加遮副
格式。1920*1080 422lt
叠化的要拉出素材
Png编码的MOV格式可带透明通道
jpeg2000格式的mov Mac不支持
输出参考视频
输出特效镜头

剪辑软件输出合成的参考画面的时候,可以关掉属性,然后再恢复。
WechatIMG307
WechatIMG308
WechatIMG309
WechatIMG310
WechatIMG311
WechatIMG312

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  特效

特效镜头和镜头版本命名推荐方案

2020/03/02 15:50 PM posted in  特效

拍摄资产: 数据管理

数据的校验和备份,包括了原始摄影机素材(original camera Footage简称OCF)和声音文件, 因此贯穿始终的工作流程就显得至关重要。数据丢失意味着对于计划和已拍摄的投资遭到重大损失。我们需要设计一套最大程度减少拍摄过程中的高成本损失的方案。

有多种方法来管理数据备份和校验工作流程。以下是关键要求:

3 : 2 : 1 备份规则

  • 始终保存至少3份所有原始摄影机素材(OCF)和音频的备份
  • 将备份数据存储在至少2种不同类型的储存载体
  • 保持至少1个异地备份

范例

  • 3 个备份:
    • 摄影机储存卡
    • 硬盘阵列(RAID 1, 5, 6 or 10)
    • LTO磁带
  • 2 中储存载体:
    • 硬盘阵列(RAID 1, 5, 6 or 10)
    • LTO磁带
  • 1 个异地备份 (地理层面的区分):
    • 一个备份在制片办公室另外一个备份在后期办公室

可接受的最终存档格式

  • LTO磁带 (LTO6, LTO7, LTO8; 以LTFS格式写入)
  • Netflix的内容中心 (云存储). (要经由Netflix批准)
  • 高速磁盘阵列(1/5/6/10)-受保护的硬盘. (要经由Netflix批准)

RAID 0仅可用于临时传输或交接的硬盘,而不能用于备份

视觉检查

  • 必须观看检查摄影机原始素材,以查看是否存在录制或数据传输问题,可参考带有场镜次信息的摄像机报表以及场记表。
    • 视觉检查最好是在实时播放时进行(如果可能)
    • 视觉质量检查应以3840x2160的最低图像分辨率执行,以最好地识别视觉伪像(例如,坏点,波纹等)
    • 如果要使用原始摄像机素材创建的剪辑代理文件,则需要进行视觉验证,以确保所有场镜次镜头都得到转移和说明。

校验检查

什么是校验?

校验和就像文件的数字指纹一样-用于识别任何类型的文件,就好像您使用文件的指纹一样。

为了校验,软件会从文件中读取数据并通过一种算法将其输出为。此过程将查看构成文件的实际数字位(1和0),并输出一个值,通常称为哈希值。哈希值表示为一串数字和字母。例如,单词“ checksum”的MD5哈希为:

226190d94b21d1b0c7b1a42d855e419d

校验和对于检测文件中的细微更改非常有用,该更改可能在传输或存储过程中的任何时候发生。例如,如果电影文件在从硬盘上传到服务器的过程中被破坏,则复制的文件的校验值和将不同于原始电影文件的校验值-即使改变一个数位。该比较方法通常称为校验。

校验检查概述

在电影制作实践中,校验用于确保原始摄影机介质在从摄影机到最终交付和存档的整个过程中完全不变。最初为摄像机直接记录的镜头生成“原始校验”。每当将媒体从摄像机卡传输到硬盘时,验证过程都会对复制的文件运行相同的校验和算法。验证与原始校验和交叉检查结果。如果所有这些都匹配,则认为复制的媒体已成功验证。

Screen_Shot_2019-02-15_at_11.43.39_AM-20200302103813269

Netflix支持的校验类型

Netflix当前支持几种校验和类型的传递。不同的校验和算法或哈希函数生成不同类型的校验。散列函数可读取任何大小的数据,并根据文件的数据计算散列。

当前,Netflix交付管道支持以下校验和类型:

  • MD5
  • xxHash64BE

MD5

MD5是一种加密哈希,从本质上来说意味着MD5旨在出于安全目的对数据进行加密。由于该加密方法会产生各种各样的哈希,因此已被用作校验和方法。

xxHash64BE

64→xxHash的64位实现
BE→Big Endian(定义如何将校验和中的数据存储在字节级别)

与MD5相比,xxHash64BE不是加密的,它是为提高速度而构建的。在64位计算机上,xxHash64BE的计算速度比MD5快一个数量级,并且是32位xxHash的两倍。散列本身的编码还与生产环境中的现有工具更加兼容。

校验和管理最佳实践

  • 将为所有原始摄像机镜头(OCF)生成并验证校验和。此外,从开始到最终交付,所有原始相机文件都会附带校验和清单。校验和清单是包含目录中每个文件的文件名和对应校验和的文本文件(例如MHL)。
  • 校验和验证方法与用于从原始记录介质生成原始校验和的方法相同。例如,如果原始校验和是使用MD5生成的,则只能使用MD5校验和验证进行验证。
  • 每次制作副本时(包括最终交付给Netflix的内容),OCF都会通过校验和进行验证。
  • 从物理记录介质上卸载原始摄像机镜头时,校验和的生成和验证可以使用MD5或xxHash64BE验证算法。原始摄像机镜头的所有传输(包括最终交付,包括最终交付)均使用校验和验证。
  • 文件的所有文件传输(包括最终传送)都附带有校验和清单,例如MHL。
    # 现场摄影机储存卡的重新使用

两种情况下都才能重新格式化原始相机媒体:

  1. 所有镜头的视觉质量控制已针对相机报告/脚本注释执行,所有镜头均已计入并签署。
  2. OCF已被复制并驻留在至少三个存储介质(LTO和/或RAID1、5、6或10)中。

在集合RAID1、5、6或10上,只能在以下两者之后重新格式化:

  1. 所有镜头的视觉质量控制均已计入每个摄像机的报告和脚本注释,并由社论签署。
  2. OCF已被复制并驻留在至少三种存储介质中,包括它们的最终归档格式。 (例如,受LTO,Content-Hub或RAID(1、5、6或10)保护的外部硬盘驱动器)**。

*** 经由Netflix批准*

数据工作流程范例

有多种方法可以实现兼容的图像验证工作流程,因此建议在拍摄前与Netflix进行讨论。

现场

  1. 完成素材录制
  2. 原始摄影机文件(OCF)给到digital imaging technician (DIT)
  3. 从原始记录媒体(例如SxS卡)生成OCF的校验
  4. 将OCF从记录媒体复制到内置现场RAID并同时交换硬盘驱动往复驱动器。无论是在复制期间还是在复制完成之后,两个副本都通过校验和验证运行。
  5. 对RAID上的所有镜头进行视觉验证。
  6. 通过加密的硬盘或锁定的容器将Shuttle Drive运送到工作室。

工作室

  1. 在验证校验和的同时,将Shuttle Drive摄取到实验室的存储中。
  2. 对直接从OCF渲染的任何编辑代理进行视觉验证,并参考摄像机报告和/或脚本注释。
  3. 最终归档格式:

    • 选项 1 - 创建2个LTO档案,在安全的位置(例如邮寄设施和生产设施)中按地理位置分开。
    • 选项 2 - 创建1个LTO存档并将OCF上载到Content Hub(Netflix Cloud Server)。
  4. LTO创建和视觉验证完成后,通知所有必要的团队记录媒体可以释放回生产。

  5. (请参阅每日新闻)一旦对LTO进行了验证并通过编辑检查了每日新闻的完整性和完整性,现成的RAID5可能会为新的OCF释放其存储空间。

SampleDataFlow-20200302103813170

2020/03/02 10:43 AM posted in  摄影

音乐库推荐

2020/03/02 02:14 AM posted in  声音

音效库推荐

2020/03/01 13:58 PM posted in  声音

纪录片《请为我投票 Please Vote for Me》陈为军 2007年

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  电影资料馆

艾晓明

北京师范大学文学博士,广州中山大学中文系教授,2008年底退休;纪录片工作者。代表作有:《天堂花园》、《太石村》、《中原纪事》、《关爱之家》、《开往家乡的列车》、《我们的娃娃》、《公民调查》、《花儿为什么这样红》等。工作邮件:xiaomai05@gmail.com,推号:xiaocao07Read more

纪录片

  • 《天堂花园》(2005年)
  • 《为革命画画:户县农民画》(2005年)
  • 《人民代表姚立法》(2006年)
  • 《中原纪事》(2006年)
  • 《关爱之家》(2007年)
  • 《红色美术》(2007年,胡杰、艾晓明合导)
  • 《我们的娃娃》(2009年)
  • 《开往家乡的列车》(2009年)
  • 《忘川》(2009年)
  • 《公民调查》(2009年)
  • 《花儿为什么这样红》(2010年)
  • 《让阳光洒在地上》(2011年)
  • 《明信片》(2011年)
  • 《乌坎三日》(2012年)
  • 《新公民案审判》(2014年)
  • 《夹边沟祭事》(2017年)
2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  电影资料馆

胡杰

胡杰15岁习画,1977年从军,有15年的军旅经历。1986年毕业于上海空军政治学院。1989年入解放军艺术学院油画班进修两年。飞机机械师,空军上尉指导员,原新华社江苏分社影视编辑。
1995年春,开始独立拍摄纪录片,第一部作品《圆明园画家村的艺术家们》

作品年表

(1)《圆明园画家村的艺术家》(Yuanmingyuan Artist Village,1995年)(2)《远山》(Remote Mountain,40min,1996年)

(3)《媒婆》(Women matchmaker/The Female Matchmaker,48min,摄于1995年)

(4)《收废品的人》(The Trash Collector,10min,1998年),短片

(5)The Janitors(1998),短片

(6)The Construction Workers(1998),短片

(7)《农民办工厂》(The Factory Set up by the Peasants,10min,1998年),短片

(8)《平原上的山歌》(The folk song on the plain/Mountain Songs in The Plain,70min,摄于2001年)

(9)《晒太阳》(Bask in Sunshine)

(10)《远山》(Remote mountain.40min)

(11)《在海边》(On the Seaside,71min)

(12)《阴道独白:中文首演》(104min)

(13)《民选村长》(The Elected Village Chief,2004年)

(14)《阴道独白:幕后故事》(The vagina monologues : stories from China,63min,导演:胡杰;录像策划:艾晓明)

(15)《寻找林昭的灵魂》(Searching for Lin Zhao’s Soul,115min)

(16)《圆明园的艺术家们;远山》(Artists of Yuanmingyuan;Rural mountain),现象工作独立发行,2005年

(17)《为革命画画:户县农民画》(Painting for the revolution peasants paintings from Hu County,56min),与艾晓明合作,中山大学中文系比较文学与世界文学教研室、中山大学性别教育论坛影像工作室,2005年

(18)《太石村》(Taishi Village,114min),与艾晓明合作

(19)《天堂花园》(Garden in heaven,140min),与艾晓明合作,采风电影有限公司

(20)《我虽死去》("Though I am gone"or"Though I Was Dead",68分钟)

(21)《人民代表姚立法》(香港中文大学中国研究服务中心,56min,2006年)

(22)《沉默的怒江》(Silent Nu River,40min),采风电影有限公司,2006年

(23)《文革宣传画》(《红色美术》/Red art),采风电影有限公司,2007年

(24)《东风国营农场》(The East Wind State Farm,101min),2009年

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  电影资料馆

电影《变脸 The King of Masks》吴天明 1996年

注意:此版本相比其他版本保留了电影原始的比例,但色彩有所缺陷。

  江湖艺人变脸王(朱旭 饰)孑然一身,以船为家,因恪守传男不传女、传内不传外之祖规,一手绝活面临失传。在活观音梁素兰(赵志刚 饰)惜才提点下,变脸王终生传承衣钵之愿。他用五枚大洋买下机灵的狗娃(周任莹 饰)。初时祖孙相处融洽,一场出街意外却令狗娃女儿身暴露。恼怒的变脸王意欲赶走狗娃,拗不过其苦苦相求,遂改自称“老板”,两人依旧搭伙卖艺。朝夕相处间,变脸王虽欣慰于狗娃孝顺懂事,碍于其女娃身份并不传授变脸绝活。按捺不住好奇的狗娃夜半偷看脸谱,失手引发船火,两人栖身之所烧毁殆尽。狗娃自感无颜,悄然离去,但心中始终感念变脸王的恩情。却不知,这份恩情有一日需要她以命相报,变脸绝活也终因此得以流传……
  本片曾获第16届金鸡奖最佳导演奖,第9届东京国际电影节最佳导演奖、最佳男演员奖等多项国内外奖项。

更多精彩内容请到 👉电影蓝皮书网 https://www.moviebluebook.com

版权申明
频道所有视频资源来自网络,仅供学术研究使用,如有任何版权问题请及时联系zhaofilms@gmail.com

Fair use.
Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. No copyright infringement intended.

2020/02/29 23:33 PM posted in  电影资料馆

使用FCPX剪辑西班牙热播系列剧《黑死病》

拥有400人剧组成员规模,200个演员和超过2000个临时演员,数个拍摄团队在130个拍摄地记录了数百小时的原始素材,9个月的剪辑和10个月视效制作,投资超过1230万美元的电视剧《黑死病》由尔贝托·罗德里格斯(Alberto Rodriguez)和拉斐尔·科波斯(Rafael Cobos)执导。电视剧《黑死病》(La Peste)是Movistar+的旗舰原创剧集。Movistar+是西班牙最大的视频点播提供商,西班牙电信(Telefonica)旗下的公司。 在这个案例研究中,我们将讨论在制作这部雄心勃勃的电视剧时所面临的许多挑战,这部电视剧是有史以来最昂贵、最令人期待的西班牙语电视剧之一。当然,你会得到一份关于剪辑团队如何用Final Cut Pro X团队协作剪辑第一季的详细内容。

故事简介

16世纪下半叶,塞维利亚是西方世界的大都市。这座强大的城市因其作为西班牙通往海外殖民的独特地位而繁荣昌盛。但由于不平等、宗教狂热、洪水和流行病,它也是一座阴影笼罩的城市。

在长达50分dia style="--en-viewerProps:{};" type="image/jpeg" hash="442876f6d04aac3af8c183f6ca4e7e49" />

这不仅仅是一个典型的犯罪题材电视剧,令人兴奋的主角往往都解决谜题。获奖导演阿尔贝托·罗德里格斯(Alberto Rodriguez)和帕科·r·巴诺斯

观众与屏幕上的角色建立了联系,并同情他们的处境。你会沉浸在16世纪世界上最重要的城市的道德和思想中。一个极度贫困的城市与新富阶层的奢华形成了鲜明的对比。腐败的统治者通过军事镇压和宗教迫害竭力维持既定秩序的城市。

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随着故事的发展,我们意识到《黑死病》实际上比我们想象的更接近我们的现代世界。曾经被称为“塞维利亚梦”的东西与我们现在所知的“美国梦”非常相似。此外,该剧导演兼联合编剧拉斐尔•科波斯(Rafael Cobos)表示,“瘟疫”也是我们今天面临的道德、社会和经济危机的隐喻。

但是今天这座城市的旧址已所剩无几。因此,大部分场景必须在片场或后期制作中完全重现,拍摄分散在不少于130个不同的地点。这是一个令人印象深刻的挑战,即使对于经验丰富的导演和该剧的联合编剧阿尔贝托罗德里格斯(Alberto Rodriguez)来说也是如此。

罗德里格斯:“毫无疑问,这是我参与过的最复杂的拍摄。这是一个复杂的电视剧,因为它需要我们高效地安排自己在很多不同场景要所有相关部门付出惊人的努力。”

本文不可能把所有与《黑死病》的制作有关的东西都写下来。幸运的是,一些重要的制作人员和后期制作人员在马德里的FCP X巡回演讲上谈论了他们在该系列剧中的工作。我们9f82ed0c557790362e48b869b6f21" />

在一场20分钟的小组讨论中,250名媒体专业人士对该剧的制作、拍摄、剪辑、调色和特效工作流程进行了讨论。该小组由Jesus Perez-Miranda主持。该视频包括许多BTS素材和一些非常棒的VFX分析。享受它吧! (视频暂缺)

让我们更详细地看看工作流程。正如演讲中提到的,所有的摄影都是用Arri Alexa相机完成的。除了特效镜头和用ArriRaw格式拍摄的一些特殊场景外,所有的镜头都是用ProRes-media style="--en-viewerProps:{};" type="image/jpeg" hash="9c0bf03a7e3ff62a719af125e4901bef" />

用ProRes 4444或ProRes 4444 XQ代替raw在高端电影和电视剧作品中并不少见。电影《威士忌、探戈、狐步舞》的拍摄完全使用了ProRes 4444 XQ的灰度色彩范围,以便用于后续的颜色校正。当我们讨论调色的时候,我们会谈到这一点。

在现场拍摄之前,调色指导兼视效指导胡安·文图拉(Juan Ventura)和他的团队进行了深入的测试,以便根据摄影指导的规范,建立该系列剧的整体色调。一旦拍摄开始,DIT根据每一个镜头调整以纠正或增强特定的色调。

使用DaVinci Resolve将这些色彩调整转换为LUTs格式,这样剪辑团队就可以将它们应用到原始log素材中,并以正确的色彩预览它。每一天,DIT都会把ProRes 4444原素材和声音报表="image/jpeg" hash="8687cde37abae74db7c5f52efe5a531f" />

剪辑团队由助理剪辑1人,剪辑师3人,剪辑指导1人组成。他们用iMacs和MacPros的Sierra系统在一个协作的环境中运行Final Cut Pro 10.3。所有的工作站都通过10G以太网连接到LumaForge阵列。

sh阵列,放到当天的文件夹里。

在阵列上,我们为每一集创建了一个文件夹。在那个文件夹中,我们有一个包含我们接收到的每一个媒体片段的Ingest文件夹,一个用于FCP X素材库的Libraries文件夹,以及一个用于我们交付给其他部门的所有内容的导出文件夹。每个文件夹都包含用于其他功能的各种子文件夹。 一旦素材被复制到LumaForge阵列上,我就会打开FCP X素材库,使用“保持文件在原始位置”将所有视频素材导入到FCP X的事件中。然后,我从该事件导出一个fcp xml,并在Shot Notes X中打开它,从而用fcp xml生成一个镜头报表。

曼努埃尔·特塞诺(剪辑师):“素材一准备好,我们就开始剪辑第一个镜头。这让我们能够在拍摄过程中发现任何问题或需求,并在必要时向导演反馈。 这些最初的剪辑只是从不同季剧集中单独分出来的粗剪场次。因为这部剧不>

这很有挑战性,因为一开始我们并不总是能看到不同场次之间的关系。但我们从导演那里得到了不断的反馈。每天我们都让他们在电话里告诉我们这一天拍摄了什么,以及他们如何处理当天拍摄的所有镜头。 我们的剪辑指导也是该系列剧的后期总监。所以他经常去片场和导演们就他看过的剪辑交换意见。

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第二个挑战是这部剧有很多特效镜头,而且很多都非常复杂。所以,在剪辑过程的早期,我们必须在后期制作总监的监督下,最终决定选择什么镜头。 然后我们会把特效镜头发送到特效工作室Twin Pines,并和特效部门讨论双方同意的素材前后预留帧数。这样,当我们在后期使用合成镜头时,仍然有空间可以调整。与VFX的项目交换是通过我们用 X to CC 软件生成的创XML完成的。”

在最初的剪辑阶段,你是如何处理音频的?

<罗萨(Julio de la Rosa)合作,几周后他就发给我们的临时的音乐。这真的帮助我们感受了整个系列的基调,这是一个非常棒的工作模式,在创造性的剪辑过程中。后来,我们用最终的音乐替换了这些临时音乐。 当然,我们为所有音频素材分配了角色和子角色,所以我们的角色分配非常直观:

——对白(Dialogue)

我们通常只会剪辑包含多个声轨的声音文件,但当我们需要一个特定的麦克风时,在软件左下角的对白角色上点击按钮,这时惊人的事情发生了,每一个分轨都显示在时间线中

随着每天代理文件的不断增加,一系列的剪辑场次序列慢慢积累,剧集开始成形。当一季的所有场景都完成后,剪辑指导从剪辑师手中接过这一集,并与导演在房间里继续工作了几个星期,最后对结构和时间进行了调整。卡洛斯:“当一季剧集准备发送到声音进行混音时,我们使用X2Pro导出了一个用于ProTools的AAF。基于角色的声音管理为ProTools工程师提供了干净的包含所有信息的文件。

<d" />

对于导出到调色和发布成片,我们没有使用xml或EDLs。相反,我导出了一个干净的Quicktime ProRes 4444母版文件不带任何lut,效果或转场,并保持原来的4:3纵横比。再输出一个QT参考文件。通过这样做,每一集1小时的内容就可以放入一个小于200G的文件中。这让我们省去了费时的套底过程,收集数百个使用过的剪辑点,每集最多占用2tb的空间来进行调色。“

该剧的调色和母版文件是由胡安·文图拉(Juan Ventura)在高端的SGO Mistika系统上完成的,他曾在40多部电影和电视剧中担任调色师和视觉特效总监。胡安也是《黑死病》的视效指导。 胡安:“Mistika在这个系列中扮演了一个非常关键的角色,不仅在色彩校正en-media style="--en-viewerProps:{};" type="image/jpeg" hash="87bb3804000e45498e352d3bbf674938" />

有效的全局工作窗口,可以在多个素材上进行多个颜色矫正、通道设置和遮罩绘制,这一切都是实时的,还不妨碍了的音频和视频层,这样就有了一个非常快速和强大的分调色和母版制作工作流程。这对我们来说是基本的工作,因为通过使用正确的调色预览某些VFX镜头,我们可以给VFX工作室更精确的反馈,并防止他们做不必要的工作。还有一些特效镜头,我们可以在Mistika中调整,甚至不需要将其发送回特效工作室。所有这些都极大地加快了完成过程。

…我们想让观众感受到那个世纪的人们是如何生活的,我们想要保留那个黑暗,那个笼罩着整个系列剧的肮脏的氛围。我认为我们已经成功了。”

结语

西班牙奥斯卡获奖剪辑何塞·莫亚诺(Jose M. G. Moyano)是《黑死病》后期制作过程中的关键人物之一。他集剪辑指导与后期总监的职责于iv>

莫亚诺:“一方面,和导演们一起拍戏是件好事,因为你可以看到他们每次拍摄后的反应。所以你回到剪辑室,知道问题可能在哪里。另一方面,你知道了素材背后更多的事情,特别是如果你知道这是拍摄的特定场景或镜头摄,这让你你不太客观的做出选择……但如果你设法解决这个问题,你愿意杀死你的宠儿,我认为被剪辑去现场一个非常积极的体验,可以创意过程中受益。”

07" />

您曾使用FCP X编辑获奖电影《千面人》(El Hombre de las Mil Caras),现在又在《黑死病》中使用。是什么让FCP X成为你最喜欢的剪辑软件?

何塞·莫亚诺:“没有一个剪辑软件是完美的。他们都有你希望改变或改进的地方。但Final Cut Pro X让我改变的欲望更小。这绝对是我用起来最舒服的剪辑软件。

我认为整体的剪辑体验是FCP X脱颖而出的原因。其有机的感觉和直观的界面,使其理想的创意和叙事剪辑。但我特别喜欢以下三个特点:同。在FCP X中浏览和标记剪辑是一种独特的体验。你甚至可以标记片段的一部分,让每一个重要的时刻都完美地组织起来。能够立即找到您需要的镜头或部分,这是我在其他剪辑软件中从未经历过的。

试演

我非常喜欢试验,因为它们让我可以把一个特定角色的所有好镜头都集中在时间轴上。当你选择一个不同的素材时,时间轴会自动适应你的选择。这比一个接一个地堆起来,每次尝试不同的选项时都必须手动重新安排时间轴要好得多。

<5576cc4" />

磁性时间线

这是我最喜欢的功能之一,因为它允许非常精确和快速地剪辑。我喜欢使用父子关联功能连接视频和音频来建立有意义的关系,以及如何很容易地保持这些关系,无论你如何重新安排你的序列或镜头。一旦你习惯了这样的工作,你就再也不想用别的了。

非常感谢《黑死病》团队提供所有这些信息,并回答了我们所有的问题。

据Movistar+统计,《黑死病》吸引的观众比《权力的游戏》第七季首播的观众多40%,《权力的游戏》第七季目前在该频道保持着收视纪录。该剧也凸显了收视行为的转变,90%的观众按需观看该剧,超过20%的观众在前四天内观看了整季。

随着《黑死病》的迅速成功,ovistar宣布第二季的发布已经确定在2019年。

© 2018 Ronny Courtens/FCP.CO <-with-fcp-x-the-prestigious-period-mystery-thriller-la-peste-surpasses-game-of-thrones-to-become-the-most-watched-television-series-in-spain

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

Codex Device Manager 拷贝阿莱等摄影机原文件的软件

最新的软件版本可以让Mac方便快捷的读取阿莱等摄影机的数据
下载地址
https://codex.online/software-downloads
下载前需要注册帐号
注意:下载完成后,安装完程序,要在系统权限设置中勾选drserver
Screen Shot 2020-02-22 at 12.08.18 A

2020/02/21 23:49 PM posted in  摄影

PIX System 一套强大的视频协作和媒体管理系统

Academy Award-winning PIX is an entertainment company that provides video collaboration and media management services for media and entertainment. PIX brings everything that needs attention by film and TV production creatives into one place - one workflow. Our platform provides creative continuity and reduces project risk by ensuring that ideas are accurately shared, stored and preserved throughout the entire creative process. Seamlessly switch between different PIX projects or workspaces to manage multiple versions of a file, track comments and uploads.

2020/02/21 23:35 PM posted in  制片

Avid Media Composer的下载和无限试用

Download Center 下载中心
http://esd.avid.com/ProductList.aspx

无限试用的方法

第一次安装MC软件时允许试用30天而且是全功能,可以挂硬件,试用期结束后,无论PC还是MAC只要删除一个文件就可以继续试用。

PC版删除C:\ProgrameData\Avid\Licenses下面的文件,

MAC版删除Library/Application Support/Avid/SWL和Library/Application Support/Avid/Licenses下面所有文件。

重开软件又可以试用30天了。

重新试用的软件是无法打开之前的工程的,如果有项目在30天试用结束之前未完成那么想继续只有花钱了。

建议一个试用周期完成所有工作,下个试用周期再展开新的工作。

下载地址

http://bbs.ivideostar.com/forum-45-1.html

2020/02/21 00:53 AM posted in  剪辑

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures 电影对白剪辑

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - Lesson 1: Organization 电影对白剪辑 - 第一课:组织

If you start to edit too soon, before you've organized your workspace, you will undoubtedly run into trouble later down the line.如果你在整理工作之前就开始剪辑,那么毫无疑问你以后会遇到麻烦。This video addresses some of the issues you will face as you plan your editing universe. 这个视频将会为你提示一些可预见性的问题For much more on getting started see Chapters 7 and 10 of the book "Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - A Guide to the Invisible Art - 2nd Edition" by John Purcell - Focal Press。

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - Lesson 2: Basic Transitions 电影对白剪辑 - 第二课

Making a scene smooth and believable is the first step in editing, and room tone is your primary tool. However, there's more than smoothness to finding the truth in a scene. One must consider story and characters in order to build a proper scene. This is discussed in great detail in Chapter 11 of the book "Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - A Guide to the Invisible Art - 2nd Edition" by John Purcell - Focal Press

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - Lesson 3: Using Reverse Room Tone

When one clip of a transition contains a sound that changes in pitch or volume, you may not be able to find the matching room tone needed to smooth the cut. Sometimes, you can solve this problem by reversing the room tone. Be careful that the clip you're reversing contains no transient sounds such as birds, voices, or car horns. Learn more in Chapter 11 of the book "Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - A Guide to the Invisible Art - 2nd Edition" by John Purcell - Focal Press

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - Lesson 4: Aligning Shots

It's not unusual for a picture editor to give you an edit in which the sound and picture come from different shots, or to include an image that contains the same voice from different sources. As the dialogue editor, you must learn to figure out what the director intends to accomplish, and then how to go about executing it. More in Chapter 11 of the book "Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - A Guide to the Invisible Art - 2nd Edition" by John Purcell - Focal Press

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - Lesson 5: The Telephone Split

In movies it's possible to hear both sides of a telephone conversation—the person we see on screen and the person on the phone. There are all sorts of narrative reasons to do this (or not to), and it's the dialogue editor who must build the scene so that all options are open during the mix. This is discussed in much greater detail in Chapter 12 of the book "Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures - A Guide to the Invisible Art - 2nd Edition" by John Purcell - Focal Press

####Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures: Time Management John Purcell speaks about organizing our available efforts and time for film sound post production. This is part of a lecture he gives in Edinburgh Napier University.

Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures: Noise Reduction

John Purcell makes an introduction to Noise Reduction in dialogue tracks.
This is part of a lecture he gave in Edinburgh Napier University

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

Protools 进阶教程

Advanced Mixing Automation in Pro Tools with Brad Engleking

2020/02/21 01:01 AM posted in  声音

声音专业词汇

production sound effects 拍摄音效 值得

书籍

  • Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures

软件

  • Sound Particles
2020/02/20 16:37 PM posted in  声音

DaVinci Resolve 16 - Fairlight音频制作

DaVinci Resolve 16 - Fairlight音频制作第一部分

这部官方DaVinci Resolve 16 培训视频将向您介绍如何使用Fairlight音频创建专业音轨。该视频由认证培训师协助制作,从音响工程师的角度为您讲授音频制作的各项功能和工作流程。您将学习音频制作、对白编辑技巧、平衡电平、录制旁白音轨、用音轨层编辑片段、分割对白、替换其他镜头中的台词、发现并修复常见问题等!

中文版(Chinese version)

英文版(English version)

DaVinci Resolve 16 - Fairlight音频制作第二部分

Fairlight音频视频的第二部分更加详细地介绍了第一部分涵盖的音频制作工具,为您展示如何使用DaVinci Resolve 16Fairlight音频系统混合以及交付音轨。我们将为您传授把粗糙的音轨变成精编的母版所需的所有步骤。这部视频将手把手教您更多的平衡技巧、正常化、压缩、均衡和创意音响设计。下一步,您将了解如何通过创建子混音和并轨来简化混音流程,以及对完成的音轨进行声线调整后交付。

中文版(Chinese version)

英文版(English version)

转载自Blackmagic Design的Youtube频道

2020/02/21 00:03 AM posted in  声音

电影《小武 The Pickpocket》贾樟柯 1997年

故事梗概

小武(王宏伟)是山西汾阳一个屡教不改的“惯偷”,即使公安部门在搞严打活动,他仍要想方设法下手。但是抛开所谓的“小偷”身份,他是个十分恋旧十分传统的人,亲情、友情在他心中都有沉甸甸的分量。但昔日亲朋好友早将他看作瘟神,惟恐躲避不及。无形之中,小武只能去做边缘人,换回某些满足和安慰。

某天在歌厅唱歌时,小武结识了陪唱小姐胡梅梅(左百韬),相似的心境让两人建立了某种暧昧的情感。然而胡梅梅明白,小武并非她的彼岸,她需要找到一个更有力的“臂膀”改变自己的命运。对此小武虽也明白,却在事情发生时仍无法抑制失落。面对自己的未来,处境更加尴尬窘迫的小武愈发茫然无措。

基本信息

  • 导演:贾樟柯
  • 编剧:贾樟柯
  • 主演:王宏伟 / 郝鸿建 / 左夏初
  • 类型:剧情
  • 制片国家/地区:中国大陆 / 中国香港
  • 语言:晋语 / 汉语普通话
  • 上映日期:1998-02-18(柏林电影节)
  • 片长:108分钟
  • 又名:The Pickpocket
  • 拍摄地:中国-汾阳

技术规格

  • 色彩:Color
  • 声音:立体声 Stereo
  • 长宽比:1.37:1
  • 胶片格式:35 mm

幕后

  • 导演贾樟柯客串了一名归还小武礼物的男子
  • 导演请他的朋友来当演员并在老家汾阳拍摄了所有镜头
  • 电影使用一台16毫米的手持摄影机拍摄了21天

版权申明

频道所有视频资源来自网络,仅供学术研究使用,如有任何版权问题请及时联系zhaofilms@gmail.com

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  电影资料馆

覆盖镜头

在电影制作和视频制作中,覆盖是指拍摄一个场景所使用的镜头数量和不同的摄像机角度。在后期制作过程中,镜头的覆盖范围越大,意味着剪辑人员在最终剪辑时用到的素材就越多。一个场景最先拍摄的镜头通常是用主镜头,一个足够广的镜头来捕捉整个场景中的动作。但是用一个广角镜头来展现整个场景会很无聊,更不用说那些会被错过的细节了。

因此,制作一部电影需要从不同的相机角度记录一个场景,使用不同的镜头景别来强调电影的重要元素,比如某人手中的枪或某人眼中的泪水。这种摄影机的布置使用称为覆盖。覆盖镜头很重要,不仅要保持动态和令人兴奋的场景,而且要简化电影的剪辑过程。

下面是电影《龙凤斗智》(The Thomas Crown Affair,1968年)中覆盖镜头的使用案例。所有的镜头组合在一起使得场景非常有趣,尤其是因为它包含了非常精细的构图,而且它关注的是角色的面部表情。

我们可以在上面的例子中找到远景镜头、中景镜头、特写镜头、大特写镜头、高角度镜头、插入镜头和反应镜头。在电影中,这个场景几乎是无声的。然而,惊人的覆盖镜头能够传达情感和紧张的情绪。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

场记的

”我们是编剧和剪辑在现场的代表,还是导演的左右手”——Jenn Durrett

场记的英文全称:Script Supervisor and Continuity Coordinator

场记在拍摄现场有三个主要职责:

  • 负责分析和监督剧本
  • 负责连镜
  • 负责记录拍摄时的信息

在开拍前,场记的指责之一就是分解剧本。经过多次阅读剧在剧本只备注细节和想法。决定场次的页数,预估场次拍摄时长,然后做全片时长预估,这些信息将会帮助制片人确定拍摄在计划之中。

在剧本中寻找故事点,道具、化妆、服装在不同场次的出现,在现场拍摄时需要特别提醒这些部门。这些信息将记录到一个主分解表,还要记录场景的时间(日/夜),发生的日期,基本的剧情,在场的角色,任何道具,发型,化妆或者服装,需要画外音或特效等。

场记通常在监视器旁度过一整天的时间,紧挨着导演而坐。写下每天拍摄的所有镜头的记录,还有每个镜头的长度,哪部分导演特别喜欢或不喜欢,或者有误开机,意外中断等信息。

保持连镜,指责就是保证故事全局的连贯。对于一个场景,就是意味着匹配动作。匹配演员的动作,对白,吃的食物或者喝的饮料。安排的发型和服饰等。确保了当剪辑剪在一起的时候,虽然不同角度但好像是一个时间发生的。

在场景之间,负责场景之间的变化。电影情节中多少天过去了,这场景是在主故事点之前还是之后,然后放在那个位置是否影响了这场景。

如果一个演员持续受伤,之后是什么样子的。这种连续是发展变化的,尤其重要的场次经常不按照场景顺序拍摄

最后,比如视线(看着哪),镜头的切换(剪辑应该在两个MCU还是在MS和ECU之间切换),这确保导演的版本和风格可以保持下去,然后还有180度规则。

和第一副导交流改变拍摄的东西,和混音师提供的麦,可听到演员的对白,然后告诉他们准确的场次信息,最后第二摄影助理准备每一次的打板,需要让他们知道比如93A到93B,或者一个新的场次数。

场记是几乎闲不下来的,在场景拍摄之前,要检查分解表,努力解决潜在的问题。一旦摄影机开始拍摄,看剧本看屏幕,做标注关于表演和动作,然后加入导演的意见circling the take,以及任何后期希望知道的东西。还有问导演或者给不同部门快速的回馈。

剧本和shot list

日报表Daily Report和time/page/scene 总表

连镜参考图y: "Helvetica Neue";">必备的东西

  • 秒表(计算场景时长)
  • 纸质剧本
  • 标记办公用品等
  • 相机或者手机拍摄still
  • 雷电接口的笔记本,还可以用black magic的设备直接从监视器捕获图片到电脑。

场记对后期的重要性

一部分摄影机参数来自第二摄影助理(希望如此),好的标注可以加快助理记录信息的速度,因为有好镜头标记,所以剪辑可以快速吧镜头组织在一起。

场记还能帮助导演记住很久之前的对一些镜头的想法,如果重新拍摄,这些标注显得非常重要。

场记记录镜头的命名惯例Naming Conventions

Shot Type镜头类型

Establishing Shot(EST)定场镜头

Two Shot(TWO)双人镜头

Point of View(POV) 主观镜头

Over The Shoulder (OTS) 过肩镜头

Visual Effect(VFX)特效镜头

Foreground(FG)前景镜头

Background(BG)背景镜头

Shot Size镜头景别

Extreme Long Shot(ELS)大远景

Long Shot(LS)远景

Full Shot(FS)全景

Medium Long Shot (MLS)中全景

Medium Shots (MS) 中景

Medium Close Ups (MCU) 中近景

Close Ups (CU) 特写

Big Close Up(BCU)大特写

Extreme Close Ups (ECU) 微距

Shot Angle镜头角度

Worm’s POV(WORM)虫视角镜头

Low Angle (LOW)仰角镜头

High Angle(HIGH)俯角镜头

Bird’s POV(BIRD)鸟瞰镜头

Canted Shot(CANT)倾斜镜头

Move

镜头运动

Static Shot(STAT)固定镜头

Panning(PAN)横移镜头

Zooming(ZOOM)变焦镜头

Tracking(TRCK)轨道镜头

Tilting(TILT)俯仰镜头

Steadicam(STDI)斯坦尼康镜头

Technocrane(TECH)伸缩摇臂镜头

Camera Car(CAR)摄影车镜头

He

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

标准剧本格式

2020/12/01 11:44 AM posted in  编剧

声音后期流程

剧本研读

ADR

Foley

对白剪辑

音效剪辑

预混

终混

剪辑工作都要按照标准分层

分层之后编组然后按照类型输出给混音

单声道的Room Tone 在对白音轨上隐藏编辑声音及剪接声音的痕迹。

房间噪音可以设置为负20到50范围,根据qkk

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

适用于 Mac OS 和 Windows 计算机的WAV文件实用程序 Wave Agent

概述

为现场混音师和后期声音编辑设计, Wave Agent提供了一个全面的声音处理软件,为在复杂的流程中顺利解决问题兵交付理想的音频文件,此软件适用于Mac和Windows。

32轨WAV文件播放

Wave Agent可以播放多达32个音轨的多音或单音广播WAV文件和来自任何来源的标准WAV文件。
回放混音器提供多轨道监测,计量,和混合的轨道。

元数据编辑

查看和编辑广播WAV文件元数据,支持bEXT和iXML块。
查看和编辑场景,镜次,轨道名称,笔记,项目,卷号,开始时间码,帧率,等等。
能够改变采样率,以及可以启用off-speed播放。

Poly文件分解和单声道文件合并

Wave Agent可以将多音WAV文件分割成单声道文件,也可以将单独的、相关的单声道WAV文件合并成一个多音WAV文件。

批量编辑

使用Wave Agent的批量编辑器可以编辑、重命名和转换一个或多个单声道或多声道WAV文件。

788T控制模式

788T控制模式通过USB与788T接口。提供788T的实时监控和时间码显示,开始/停止记录和采取列表访问与实时元数据编辑。

声音报告

可以通过Reports窗口定制声音报告,并将其导出为PDF或CSV(逗号分隔值)文件。

附加功能

  • Windows (7, Vista, XP) 和 Mac OS (10.4+) 兼容
  • 修正时间码和帧率
  • 多路计量和监控混频器
  • 具有拖放操作的用户可配置图形用户界面(GUI)
    ###### 已知问题
    >一些macOS Catalina用户在安装Wave Agent时报告了一些问题。如果Wave代理对您的工作流程至关重要,Sound Devices建议您维护macOS的旧版本。
    > 在极少数情况下,重启Mac电脑时,电脑可能会冻结在苹果标识上。如果发生这种情况,在安全模式下重启Mac,重启时按住左SHIFT键。启动磁盘实用程序,运行急救允许急救修复权限,然后重新启动计算机

注意:Wave代理不支持32位的浮动文件。
有关在macOS Catalina上安装Wave代理的说明,请阅读
技术报告.

原文章链接

2020/02/03 21:03 PM posted in  声音

Overview总结
Designed for Production Sound Mixers and Post Production Editors, Wave Agent provides a comprehensive and indispensable range of tools for preparing audio files for problem-free passage through complex production workflows. Available for Mac and Windows.
设计

32-Track WAV File Playback
Wave Agent can playback up to 32 tracks of polyphonic or monophonic Broadcast WAV files and standard WAV files from any source.
The Playback Mixer provides multi-channel monitoring, metering, and mixing of tracks.
Metadata Editing
View and edit Broadcast WAV file metadata, supporting both bEXT and iXML chunks.
View and edit Scene, Take, Track Names, Notes, Project, Tape, Start Time Code, Frame Rates, and more.
Ability to alter the sample rate header to enable off-speed playback.

Poly Split and Mono Combine
Wave Agent can split polyphonic WAV files into mono files, or join separate, related monophonic WAV files into a single polyphonic WAV file.
Batch Editing
Edit, rename and convert one or multiple monophonic or polyphonic WAV files with Wave Agent’s batch editor.

788T Control Mode
788T Control Mode interfaces with the 788T via USB. Provides real-time monitoring of 788T meters and time code display, start / stop recording and take list access with live metadata editing.
Sound Reports
Sound Reports can be customized and exported as a PDF or a CSV (Comma Separated Value) file via the Reports window.

Additional Featur
Windows (7, Vista, XP) and Mac OS (10.4+) compatible.
Correction of time code stamps and frame rates.
Multi-channel metering and monitor mixer.
User-configurable graphic user interface (GUI) with drag and drop operation.
Known Issue
Some macOS Catalina users have reported issues when installing Wave Agent. If Wave Agent is crucial to your workflow, Sound Devices recommends maintaining a previous version of macOS.
On rare occasions, upon restarting a Mac, the computer may freeze on the Apple logo. If this happens, restart Mac in Safe Mode by holding down the left SHIFT key upon restart. Launch Disk Utility, run First Aid allow First Aid to repair permissions then re-start the computer.
Note: Wave Agent does not support 32-bit Float files.

2020/01/31 17:11 PM

01.放弃印象笔记的缘由

相信很多人都使用过大名鼎鼎的印象笔记,它有跨平台支持、自动同步、网页剪裁等优秀功能,而我这两年也习惯用它整理资料和记录想法。随着使用的深入,当我需要细致的分类文档,以及导出各种格式的时候感觉到这款强大的软件依然存在很多缺陷。

以下就是我放弃印象笔记的几个主要理由

鸡肋的分类整理功能

导出格式选项有限

免费版的流量限制

文档输入和显示不够简洁有序

并且直接原因是,我的印象笔记付费账号到期了。

02.寻找替代方案的思考
笔记软件在市面上有很多同类产品,比如国内的有道云笔记、为知笔记,国外有OneNote、Bear熊掌记等。可这些笔记软件要不就是免费但体验不佳,要不就是好用但免费版本功能有所限制。

那么有没有一个更好的方案呢?这个时候我发现了这些笔记平台的一个普遍规律,甚至印象笔记最近也加入的一个功能:Markdown。

什么是Markdown?

Markdown是一种轻量级的「标记语言」,它的优点很多,目前也被越来越多的写作爱好者,撰稿者广泛使用。看到这里请不要被「标记」、「语言」所迷惑,Markdown 的语法十分简单。常用的标记符号也不超过十个,这种相对于更为复杂的HTML 标记语言来说,Markdown 可谓是十分轻量的,学习成本也不需要太多,且一旦熟悉这种语法规则,会有一劳永逸的效果。

在没有了解一件新事物之前,人们都会保守的使用旧有的文档格式。大部分人习惯的还是微软的Word文档格式,或者苹果的Pages文档格式,亦或者印象笔记等平台的文档格式。

Markdown格式的优势

专注你的文字内容而不是排版样式

轻松的导出 HTML、PDF、EPUB等文件

纯文本内容,兼容所有的文本编辑器

可读、直观、学习成本低。

既然Markdown这么强大,那有没有好用又免费的方案呢?借助Github开源社区,我下载试用了很多款免费的Markdown软件,最终锁定了Typora。

Typora的优点总结

预览和编辑界面一体

强大的快捷键

表格起来非常方便

支持将本地图片拖进编辑页面

支持多种导出格式(PDF,HTML,Word,EPpub等)

有多种主题可选

说了这么多它的优点,可是它并不支持网络同步,所有的文档都以.md的格式保存在电脑。既然这样,那么我只需要一个同步盘软件不就解决了这个问题?

什么是同步盘?不仅仅是百度网盘那样存储文件的网盘,它往往支持本地与云端文件的自动同步,并会有对应的软件支持。

比较流行的同步盘软件有Dropbox、OneDrive、Google Drive等,由于某些[你懂的]的原因我优先选择了微软的OneDrive。

03.强强联合,Typora和OneDrive笔记方案的形成
安装OneDrive后在Mac的文件侧边栏会有OneDrive的同步盘,将需要同步的笔记放置在了Markdown Notes文件夹下,用Typora打开笔记文件后会发现和文件夹中的路径一一对应,不需要重新对文档进行整理。这套方案完全免费和安全的进行了本地和网络的同步备份,满足了日常记笔记的需要和在异地同步文件的需要。

04.笔记方案的总结
Typora提供了最佳的Mac端Markdown体验

每当在Typora中对文档修改,同步盘中的文件就会自动同步到OneDrive

可以在Typora中分类整理文档,也可以在Mac文件夹整理文档,方便直观

2020/01/31 17:12 PM

就阿里的法律交流

2020/01/31 17:26 PM

和制片部门制定备份方案

根据拍摄天数、摄影机类型、录制卡数量机位数(双机位或三机位等)、是否分AB组、是否现场转码、是否现场剪辑等因素制定方案。

和摄影师确认摄影机参数设置

确认项目的分辨率、帧率、格式、画幅比、是否宽银幕

分配机器的卷号,按照机型给储存卡进行编号,将名称标注于卡的背面,比如A01,A02,B01,02,C01,C02分别代表三台机器的储存卡编号

如果拍摄变形宽银幕,可以在机身设置像素比为2:1,这样录制素材本身就被还原为2.39:1的画面,不然则需要到达芬奇软件中进行设置才能把方形的画面还原为宽银幕。

和录音师确认时间码同步

让录音师设置录制音频格式为一轨多通道的声音文件

在摄影机TC菜单设置为TCin和free run

和剪辑师特效确认元数据的方案

开机前的测试

监视器测试校准

摄影机测试

和摄影师一起测试摄影机的曝光,色彩,宽容度,iso等参数

现场DIT设备测试

能否正常拷贝、检查原始文件画面是否有问题,metadata是否正确。

离线DIT设备测试

套底选项设置,LUT设置,烧录信息设置,测试输出的转码代理文件是否有问题

回批套底测试

将转码代理文件简单剪辑后输出XML,然后在达芬奇中打开,看能否正确套底原始素材

自动合板测试

在达芬奇或者Final Cut Pro中测试能否利用时码同步的方式同步视频和音频

时码同步测试

看监视器挂载时码盒的摄影机时码是否一致

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

自动同步声音

Cmd+Alt+down 将上层视频自动插入主视频轨道

场镜次01-01a-01

每日的工程,有画面一个事件,声音一个事件,然后分完场后一个场次建立一个事件,然后这个事件添加到总的工程文件里面

总的工程文件

剪辑一个事件

在导入xml或者事件前,应该同步不同剪辑师的工程中的事件。

设置工程

工程建立之后,将媒体库设置在单独的位置,这样工程的体积就不会变大。

精简工程大小

剪辑过程中往往工程会变得很大,这有可能是工程包含了一些生成的文件,依次选择文件-删除生成的媒体库文件-勾选想要删除的文件-点击确定

v>

严重问题

直接拖拽素材到文件夹中,不能正确读取索尼微单Mp4格式文件的时间码,总是从00开始,而达芬奇和pr可以正常读取时间码,所以原始文件就中的ixml文件不能删除,并且需要保持原始文件的全部数据

解决方法

1在剪辑之前对所有素材进行转码

2 从导入窗口进行导入,

高帧率项目整体拷贝素材到地真绿项目的时候存在拷贝不完整的现象。

当导入声音文件的时候,会根据音轨数量来自动归类为必入立体声,但是如果声音虽然立体声,但是实际上录制了一个轨道,这时候就需要设置这些文件立体声变为mono

将单声道隔开并对立体声音频进行分组:分析音频通道并将其按双单声道或立体声进行分组,具体取决于分析结果。自动校正的音频通道将标记为“自动选定”。有关音频通道的更多信息,请参阅在 Final Cut Pro 中配置音频通道

移除静音通道:将分析音频通道,并移除静音通道。已移除通道的片段将标记为“自动选定”。有关音频通道的更多信息,请参阅在 Final Cut Pro 中配置音频通道

错误案例:

一个电视剧的补拍镜头,通过声音同步之后,再通过xml导入到fcpx,然后声音默认为立体声,但是实际上只录制了一柜声音,所以将素材导入时间线的时候就只能播放左声道的声音

如何解决:

及时改正现场录音的设置

快速显示文件

CMD+SHIFT+R

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

导入素材到媒体池

导入素材

  • 在媒体池中新建以拍摄日期为名的文件夹,比如Day01_20180101文件夹,然后在此文件夹下再建Video和Audio两个子文件夹
  • 将视频和音频分别导入到Video和Audio文件夹中

提取卷号

一、有内嵌卷号的素材

设置协助使用的卷名来自内嵌(默认设置)

二、无内嵌卷号的素材

无内嵌卷号的素材在文件属性中手动设置卷名使用源文件名

/>

问题01:使用Alexa Mini拍摄的MXF素材倒入媒体池中不能识别 解决方案:使用ARRIRAW Converter将MXF素材无损转换为ari格式序列


添加元数据

摄影文件提供的元数据

File Name文件名

Camera

摄影机

Shooting Date

拍摄日期

FPS

帧率

TC Start

开始时间码

TC End

结束时间码

Fps of TC

TC帧率

Reel/Tape卷号

ASA

感光度

Whitepoint

色温

T-Stop

光圈

Shutter

快门

Shutter Degree

快门开角

Sensor FPS

感光器帧率

Lens

镜头

Filter

滤镜

Codec

格式

Resolution

分辨率

声音文件提供的元数据

TC Start

开始时间码

TC End

结束时间码

Sound Reel

声音卷号

Track

轨道信息

Wild Track

非同步录音

Fps of TC

TC帧率

Scene

Take

场记提供的元数据

Scene

Take

Description描述

Comments注释

INT/ EXT

内景外景

MOS

无对白

False Starts 误开机

Voiceover(OV)画外音

Shot Type镜头类型

Shot Size镜头景别

Shot Angle镜头角度

Move

镜头运动


同步音视频

基于时间码自动同步音频

选择视频和音频右键在弹出菜单中选择基于时间码自动同步音频

新建时间线

  • 选择全部视频素材,右键在弹出菜单中新建时间线
  • 新建时间线的设默认音频轨道类型选为单声道(可设置默认为单声道,就不需要每次进行更改,音轨如不是单声道会造成达芬奇识别的错误)

问题01:视频声音不完整,因录音机不小心连续录了两个声音文件,同步的时候默认使用了其中一个声音文件。解决方案:手动合并对位

问题02:声画不同步,时码盒偏差或意外与摄影机断连,解决方案:手动合板


统一为项目时基

大疆的航拍48帧,时基也是48,在avid等软件中变速不能加载,所以在转吗前将素材属性设置为24时基,当然在日后DI回批素材的时候也要将媒体池的对应片段设置为24时基

加载LUT&CDL

加载LUT(专用机型有特有LUT)

在调色页面的节点编辑器中选择时间线模式,添加节点

加载对应摄影机的3D LUT

加载CDL

如有现场调色数据,可将LiveGrade等软件输出的cdl文件通过达芬奇的ColorTraceTM工具导入对应镜头的现场调色数据


烧录信息和水印

打开数据烧录工具,选择需要烧录的数据,通常烧录以下信息

  • Source Clip Name 源片段名称
  • Source Timecode 源时间码
  • Audio Timecode 声音时间码
  • Scene 场次
  • Take 镜次
  • Lens 镜头型号
  • Date 拍摄日期

输出代理文件

打开发布页面然后进行以下步骤:

一、首先设置渲染的格式

通常代理文件的格式和编码

  • MXF 编码DNxHD 36 适用于avid剪辑流程
  • Quicktime 编码Apple ProRes 422 LT 适用于FCP剪辑流程

二、渲染方式和文件名设置

视频:多个单独的片段

文件:源名称

三、设置渲染路径并添加到渲染队列,按照卷号渲染到不同的文件夹

问题01:出现花帧或黑色线条。解决方案:重新渲染、对电脑进行散热

注意:避免使用劣质线材和硬盘盒,或者通过网线在异地进行渲染输出,很可能画面出现夹帧等画面问题。


输出ALE&CDL元数据


检查

用达芬奇自动合板,然后xml或者ale,在软件里面重新连接

达芬奇通过ALE接口到avid

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

- 1.19:1**:"Movietone",早期使用35毫米胶片的有声电影,大部分拍摄于 20 至 30 年代,尤其欧洲。光学音效轨被放置于 1.33 框面的侧边,因此减少了画面的宽度。“学院孔径(Academy Aperture)”扩张了胶片的使用面积而能达到 1.37。此种比例的最佳示例为 [Fritz Lang](https://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fritz_Lang&action=edit&redlink=1) 所拍摄的《M》和《The Testament of Dr. Mabuse》。在今日的横向画面比例中,它几乎不被使用。

  • 1.25:1:电脑常用的分辨率 1280x1024 即此种比例,这是许多 LCD 显示器的原生分辨率。它也是 4x5 胶片冲洗照片的比例。英国早期的水平 405 线规格使用这种比例,从 1930 至 1950 年代直到被更通用的 4:3 取代为止。
  • 1.33:1:即所谓4:3,35毫米无音效轨胶片的原始比例,在电视和视频上都同样常见。也是IMAXMPEG-2影像压缩的标准比例。
  • 1.37:1:35毫米全屏的有音轨胶片,在 1932 年到 1953 年间几乎是通用的。作为“学院比例”它在 1932 年被美国电影艺术学院立为标准,至今仍然偶尔使用。亦是标准 16毫米胶片的比例。
  • 1.43:1:IMAX 70毫米胶片的水平格式。
  • 1.5:1:35毫米胶片用于静物拍摄的比例。亦用于较宽的电脑显示(3:2),曾用于苹果电脑的 PowerBook G4 15.2 吋的屏幕,分辨率为 1440x960。这个比例也用于苹果电脑的 iPhone 产品。(微软Surface Pro亦用此长宽比触屏携带式平板电脑)
  • 1.56:1:即宽屏幕的 14:9 比例。是为 4:3 和 16:9 之间的折衷比例,常用于拍摄广告或者在两种屏幕上都会放映的影像,两者之间的转换都只会产生微量的剪裁。
  • 1.6:1:即所谓16:10(8:5),是电脑屏幕常见的比例,用于 WSXGAPlusWUXGA 和其他种分辨率。因为它能同时显示两个完整页面(左右各一页),所以十分受欢迎。[1]
  • 1.66:1:35毫米欧洲宽屏幕标准;亦为 Super 16毫米胶片的比例(5:3,有时精确的标志为 1.67)。
  • 1.75:1:早期35毫米胶片的宽屏幕比例,最主要是米高梅影业在使用,但已经被抛弃。
  • 1.77:1:即所谓16:9(= 42:32),标准宽屏幕。使用于高清晰度HD电视MPEG-2的影像压缩上,也是现在电脑屏幕、电视、手机最常用的比例。
  • 1.85:1:35毫米胶片,美国和英国用于拍摄在戏院放映的电影的比例,即是37:20。在四齿格的框面中画面大约占了三格高,也可直接使用三格高拍摄,以节省胶片成本。
  • 2:1:主要在 1950 和 60 年代早期为环球影业所使用,还有派拉蒙影业的一些VistaVision影片;也是 SuperScope 诸多比例中的一种。现代启示录的 DVD 版本、侏罗纪世界的 Blu-ray 版本亦使用这种比例;2017/2/26 LG 推出首款 QHD+ 分辨率 2:1(宣传为18:9)屏幕的智能手机 LG G6[4]
  • 2.2:1:70毫米胶片标准。在 1950 年代为了 Todd-AO 这部片而开发的。另有 2.21:1 在 MPEG-2 规格中写明但未使用。
  • 2.35:1 :1970 年以前用35毫米胶片拍摄的横向影像,由 CinemaScope 和早期的 Panavision 所使用,比例大约是47:20。横向拍摄的标准慢慢地改变,现代的横向制作实际上已经是 2.39:1[1],但因传统而仍常被称为 2.35:1。(注意所谓的“anamorphic”指的是胶片上,限于四个齿格内的“学院区域”的影像,比起其他高度较高的影像的压缩程度。)
  • 2.370:1:即所谓21:9,实际值是64:27(= 43:33)。在2009年至2012年间,有部分电视曾用这种长宽比制成,并以“21:9电影级屏幕”作招徕。然而这种长宽比仍可在高端显示器上看到,有时也被称为UltraWide显示器。2019/2/26 SONY在香港举行发布会,推出两款 21:9 全新比例的智能手机 Xperia 10 和 Xperia 10 Plus。
  • 2.39:1:1970 年以后的35毫米横向影像,比例大约是43:18。电影称使用 Panavision 或 Cinemascope 系统拍摄即表示此种比例。
  • 2.4:1:蓝光光盘加整电影为2.40:1,即是12:5[1]
  • 2.55:1CinemaScope 系统在未加音效轨之前的原始比例,这也是 CinemaScope 55 的比例。
  • 2.59:1Cinerama 系统完全高度的比例(三道以特别方式拍摄的35毫米影片投影成一个宽屏幕画面)。
  • 2.76:1MGM Camera 65(65毫米胶片加上 1.25x 倍的横向压缩),只使用于1956年到1964年间的一些影片,例如1959年的 《宾汉》(Ben-Hur)
  • 4:1Polyvision,使用三道35毫米胶片并排同时放映。只使用于一部影片,Abel GanceNapoléon(1927年)。
2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

专业组织

ACE美国电影剪辑协会

ASC美国电影摄影协会

BSC英国电影摄影协会

电影节

波兰Camerimage国际电影节

FPS(frames per second)每秒帧率

HD(high-definition)高清

DSLRs(digital single-lens reflex still)单反

LED(light-emitting diode)发光二极管

CGI(computer generated imagery)电脑生成图像

DCP(digital cinema package )数字电影包

VO(voice-over)画外音

3D(three-demensional )三维

DI(digital intermediate)数字中间片

ADR (automated dialogue replacement)自动对白替换

Pre-production前期制作

Location scouting 勘景

rehearsals 彩排

rehearsal videos排练视频

previs视觉预览

animatics动画

production 摄制

Principal photography主拍摄

mise en scene场面调度

Wild track非同步录音

通常录音师单独录制的镜头需要的对白或者其他后期需要的声音文件

post-production 后期制作

EDL edit decision list剪辑决定表

宣发

Electronic press kit:EPKs花絮

field-recording现场录音

Clapperboard场记板

DIT 现场数据管理

Tentacle Sync章鱼同步器

media magagement媒体管理

data wrangling 数据备份

Shot Types 构图类型

production still 剧照

Behind the scenes 幕后

free-lance自由职业

zoom in 和zoom out是摄像技术用语。zoom in 指(照相机等)用变焦距镜头使景物放大,即将景物推近;zoom out刚好相反,表示用变焦距镜头使景物缩小,即将景物拉远。

cinephile 影迷,电影爱好者

films, film theory, and film criticism.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM

轴线

轴线是指由被摄对象的视线方向、运动方向和相互之间的关系形成一条假定的直线。由视线方向和运动方向形成的轴线称为方向轴线,由相互之间位置(两个人物以上)形成的轴线谓之关系轴线。

方向轴线

是指被摄对象静止不动的,即位置没有移动。这样“轴线”就要根据各主体间的连线或主体到背景平面的垂直线来定,这就叫“方向轴线”。

运动轴线

运动轴线即处于运动中的人或物体,其运动方向构成主体的运动轴线。它是由被摄主体的运动所产生的一条无形的线,或称之为主体运动轨迹。

关系轴线

关系轴线是依据被摄对象之间的位置关系形成的一条假想的直线。这条直线的产生源于两个人之间的交流。无论二者正对,还是背对彼此,我们根据其头部的位置确定轴线,换句话说,关系轴线与人物的实现无关,只与头部的相对位置有关。

在方向性较强的人物或物体的拍摄中,往往存在着一条假想的轴线,摄像机要在假想轴线的一侧,即180°以内设置机位,以保证正确处理人或物体在画面中的方向。

越轴

在进行机位设置和拍摄时,要遵守轴线规律,即在轴线的一侧区域内设置机位,不论拍摄多少镜头,摄像机的机位和角度如何变化,镜头运动如何复杂,从画面看,被摄主体的运动方向和位置关系总是一致的,否则,就称之为“ 越轴”或“ 跳轴”。

180°以内是一般的教科书中的不越轴的标准,但在特殊的情况下,存在两条以上轴线,就不是180°以内不越轴了。比如两个人肩并肩向前走,两个的位置关系构成第一条关系轴线,两个人的运动方向构成了第二条方向轴线,两条轴线是相互垂直的,这时就是90°以内不越轴。

《东京物语》(Tokyo Story),1953,小津安二郎导演。在影片中,导演故意使用了越轴的拍摄的手法,以此来还原生活的原本状态。

如何越轴

越轴会带来视觉上的困难,使观众难于理解场景的换转。但是,在影片拍摄的过程中,绝对不越轴是很难做到的。有些处于借景的需要,有些是为了剧情的需要,不得不越轴。下面介绍几种常用的越轴方法:

利用轴线上的镜头来越轴

轴线上的镜头通常是全景镜头,但全景镜头不一定在轴线上,轴线外也有全景镜头。所以应该表述成利用轴线上的镜头来越轴。在演播室内,轴线上的机位永远处于工作状态,切换机位时,先点击一下轴线上的机位,再切其他机位,一定不会出现技术问题。

另外不带肩的正面镜头也可以帮助越轴,带肩就分左右了,有左右就越轴了。比如行驶中的汽车正面镜头也可以帮助越轴。

同学们外出拍片,要拍一些轴线上的全景镜头备用,有时没有轴线镜头就画面不够用,有了就够用了。

利用运动镜头来实现越轴

运动镜头的起幅在轴线的一侧,落幅在轴线的另一侧,就可以接越轴后的机位。如果落幅还在轴线的起幅一侧,哪怕是在轴线上,都会造成越轴。

利用无方位感镜头来越轴

无方位感的镜头通常是特写镜头,这些特写镜头只反应了局部特征,没有明显的方向,不会给人空间上的错觉。通常所说的无技巧剪辑,就是通过特写镜头来连接两个片段。

利用越轴进行艺术创作

在电影《这个杀手不太冷》(Leon,1994年,法国,导演为吕克·贝松)中,就是利用越轴来实现转场,前一个镜头是小女孩带墨镜照镜子,人在画左,朝向右,下一镜头仍是小女孩带着那个墨镜,人到了画右,面向画向左,但镜头拉开了,其实小女孩已经到了大街上的水果摊前。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

visual effects dailies 特效样片

Foreground plate前景特效素材

background plate背景特效素材

the original on set photography

iv>final shot

the original on set photography

final shot

有动态,静态的区分

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  特效

时间码的作用

  • 保证录制的素材的唯一性
  • 同步多个机位的声画,同步3D摄影机的素材

时间码的类型

Free Run

特点:经常用在多机位拍摄且需要同步声音的情况下,声音和画面的时间码匹配在后期更容易进行同步。

注意:声音的帧率和项目帧率必须匹配,电影一般以24帧每秒为准。在拍摄高速或低速片段的时候,帧率不再匹配,时间码就会重复或不一致。为了防止发生这种情况,摄影机将会暂时自动切换到Rec Run模式。

Rec Run

特点:经常用在一台摄影机拍摄的情况下,即使在升格拍摄中也会用继续按照实际的录制时间生成时间码。

注意:用1到20来为卷号1到20作为时间码的起始时间,如果到了第21卷,又从1开始作为其起始时间码。

时间码的模式

Regen

必须一直连接时码盒,可长时间保持同步,但必须保证时码盒有效连接到摄影机。

  • 当连接有问题时,比如线断开了,摄影机会转为内部时码来避免时间码的跳跃,而且在监视器显示中TC会变成黄色进行提示,当线重新连接后摄影机会继续使用时码盒的时间码。
  • 当拍摄非项目帧率的画面,比如升格或者降格,TC也会变成黄色进行提示,而且当摄影机更改为这种非项目帧率的设置后,时间码就会变为Rec Run。直到恢复为项目帧率,摄影机会自动从时码盒提取时码。

Preset

摄影机内部时间码,可手动修改。

Jam Sync

将时码盒连接摄影机后,在监视器上TC码会闪烁表示正在同步,当完成同步后不闪了,就可以拔掉时码盒。此时摄影机的时码会以时码盒的时码为准继续跑码,并可在八小时内保持误差不超过一帧。超出八小时就需要进行重新同步。

EDIUS

Using Timecode

Timecode ensures that every image of recorded media can be identified with a unique value and synced with corresponding media, such as sound or the second camera in a 3D application. When used with other metadata, such as reel names, all recorded media maintains its unique identity.

时间码确保记录的每一帧画面可以有独一无二的参数,并且和其他同步,比如声音或者在3D拍摄中的第二台摄影机。当使用其他元数据,像卷号,全部录制包含了特定参数。

Following are two ways timecode can be used on a production:

以下两种方式可用在拍摄中。

External TC, Time of day

外置时间码

Use: This format is often used on multi-camera productions with sync-sound. When all cameras are running at sync-sound speed, which is also the project frame rate, sound and image time code match and allow for easy syncing in post. Setup: The sound department acts as the timecode master, and generates timecode which uses the time of day as a value, and a time base matching the project frame rate. Twenty-four hours of time will translate into twenty-four hours of time code.

用处:这种格式经常用在多机位摄制并现场录音,当所有的摄影机在以同步的声音的情况下运行,项目帧率,声音和画面时间码匹配允许后期进行方便的同步。步骤:声音部门作为时间码主,生成时间码用一天的时间作为参数,时间匹配项目的帧率。24小时将会转换为24小时的时间码。

Timecode is fed to the camera via the TC connector. The timecode source must be set in the camera to Ext LTC and the mode to Free Run. The project fps setting must match both the sensor frame rate and the time base of the external timecode signal. The camera can be set to use Jam sync generator, in which it samples the timecode value once and then continues counting based on its own high-precision crystal clock. The timecode source can be disconnected from the camera after jamming in Jam sync generator mode. This mode ensures stable timecode with an offset of less than one frame for each eight hours, after which the camera has to be re-jammed.

Alternatively, the camera can be set to regenerate mode, or Regen on the TIMECODE OPTIONS screen. In Regen mode, the camera uses the timecode value of the external timecode source. This ensures correct timecode for an infinite duration, but the timecode source must remain connected to the camera. Note that the camera ignores external timecode during record and counts using its internal clock to avoid timecode jumps should connection problems arise, e. g. due to a faulty timecode cable.

时间码通过TC线连接到摄影机,时间码源在摄影机中设置为外置时间码和Free Run模式。项目帧率必须和感光器帧率匹配,时间码基于外置的时间码信号。摄影机必须设置为Jam同步生成,然后会以内部高精度时钟运行,时间码源可以不连接摄影机在jam 同步生成模式之后。这种模式必须确保稳定时间码,在八小时中偏移少于一帧。之后,摄影机需要重新jam。另外,可设置为regerator模式,或则Regen 在时间码选项中,在regen模式中,摄影机使用时间码参数来自外部时间码源,着确保了长时间正确的时间码。但是时间码源必须保持连接摄影机。注意摄影机忽略外部时间码,在用内部时钟避免时间码跳跃,因为时间码线。

Variations: If shooting starts close to midnight, the timecode might be started with an offset time of day to prevent a rollover at midnight.

Restrictions: External timecode is only possible if the camera is running at sync- sound speed. If the camera is over- or under-cranking, the timecode frame rate will no longer match the sensor framerate, and timecode values would either be duplicate or dropped. To prevent this, the ALEXA will automatically switch to Int TC source and Regen mode when the sensor frame rate is changed.

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Operation of the Camera 133

Use: Record run timecode is often used on single camera productions that are either MOS or use a dumb slate to sync picture and sound. Record run timecode guarantees continuous timecode on all recorded data. Record runtime code also works with over- and under-cranking.

Setup: The timecode source must be set to Int TC, the mode to Rec Run and the generator to Regen. Timecode counts up only during recording, by one frame for each image generated by the sensor. The timecode counts at the project frame rate set on the camera. Normally, the timecode hour value advances by one hour for each new reel, using only hours 01-20 for reel 1-20, and then restarting at hour 01 for reel 21.

Variations: Record run timecode might be used for off-speed work on productions that use external timecode sources for all sync sound.

Restrictions: None.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

Foley is an art of creating a soundscape in the movie, game or TV production. We can describe **[Foley](http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/aug14/articles/the-foley-grail.htm)** as hidden sounds. The sounds that you are not paying attention to but without them, the story wouldn’t be believable to the audience. As you may already think, I am not talking about explosions, space ship sounds or car chases. We call this sounds design.

Foley是一种在电影,游戏或电视制作中创造音景的艺术。我们可以把Foley形容为隐藏的声音。你没有注意到但没有它们的声音,这个故事对观众来说是不可信的。正如您可能已经想到的那样,我不是在谈论爆炸,太空船声音或汽车追逐。我们称之为声音设计。

Foley is footsteps and cutlery in a busy restaurant scene. The sound of a hand touching a table or a simple door creak. Foley is usually hyper-real, that means the sounds are exaggerated. They are louder and more prominent than reality. All these are techniques to tell a better story.

Foley是繁忙的餐厅场景中的脚步和餐具。用手触摸桌子或简单的门吱吱声的声音。 Foley通常是超真实的,这意味着声音被夸大了。它们比现实更响亮,更突出。所有这些都是讲述更好故事的技巧。

Creating a believable soundscape, one that is not noticed by an audience, is a complex but exciting task. Every production is different, but there are a few standard procedures in executing a great Foley recording.

创造一个可观的音景,一个没有被观众注意到的音景,是一项复杂但令人兴奋的任务。每个制作都不同,但执行一个伟大的Foley录音有一些标准程序。

SPOTTING

Spotting is an undertaking of writing down a list of all Foley sounds that a director can select for a recording.

A team of editors will watch a scene and note every action that may or may not need a sound effect. Imagine a dinner scene.

Will you need the sound of cutlery?

A sound of pouring wine into a glass?

Or maybe someone is moving a chair around the table?

Every little thing like that you will need to note down. It is always better to have more options of recorded sounds than less. Spotting is a tedious task, but it can be an eye-opener for someone who is just starting out in the industry.

Spotting是写下导演可以为录音选择的所有Foley声音列表的承诺。

编辑团队将观看场景并记录可能需要或可能不需要声音效果的每个动作。想象一下晚餐现场。

你需要餐具的声音吗?

将酒倒入玻璃杯的声音?

或者也许有人在桌子周围移动椅子?

这样的小事你需要记下来。拥有更多录制声音的选项总是比较少。 Spotting是一项繁琐的工作,但它对于刚开始从事这个行业的人来说是一个大开眼界。

FOLEY RECORDING

Before Foley recording sessions begin a creative team decides on a priority of sounds to record. A standard movie production can have thousands of Foley sounds listed, but you don’t need all them. A good vision of the final product is important.

在Foley录制会议开始之前,创意团队决定录制的声音优先级。标准电影制作可以列出数千种Foley声音,但您不需要它们。对最终产品的良好愿景非常重要。

When the list for the recording is ready, the session starts.

当录制列表准备就绪时,会话开始。

Recordings take place on Foley stage, a big, treated room with a large screen and many different props. On the screen, you can see scenes from the movie. And then in real time, a Foley artist acts the sounds, and Foley engineer captures them.

录音在Foley舞台上进行,Foley舞台是一间经过处理的大房间,配有大屏幕和许多不同的道具。在屏幕上,您可以看到电影中的场景。然后实时,一个Foley艺术家发出声音,Foley工程师捕捉它们。

Foley artist is the most important part of the Foley team and the most creative. Foley artists must use their imagination with props and then in real time mimic what is happening on screen. When the scenes play, there is no sound or dialogue. It is just a picture.

Foley艺术家是Foley团队中最重要的部分,也是最有创意的。 Foley艺术家必须利用他们的想象力和道具,然后实时模仿屏幕上发生的事情。当场景播放时,没有声音或对话。这只是一张照片。

Remember our dinner scene?

还记得我们的晚餐现场

The Foley artist can use a bit of metal to create the sound of cutlery. Maybe he will use a piece of wood or an old case to create the sound of a chair. He or she will use a different kind of shoes for on-screen characters. And create a different kind of movement styles.

Foley艺术家可以使用一点金属来制作餐具的声音。也许他会用一块木头或一个旧箱子来制作椅子的声音。他或她将使用不同类型的鞋子用于屏幕上的角色。并创造出不同的运动风格。

A great Foley artist can turn a normal dinner scene into a lively and exciting event. But we can’t undermine the job of a Foley sound engineer. A choice of a correct microphone type, microphones setup and correct levels are crucial. The difference can leave you with either beautiful Foley sound or a mediocre and noisy one.

一个伟大的Foley艺术家可以将正常的晚餐场景变成一个生动而令人兴奋的活动。但我们不能破坏Foley音响工程师的工作。选择正确的麦克风类型,麦克风设置和正确的电平是至关重要的。这种差异可能会给你留下美丽的Foley声音或平庸而嘈杂的声音。

A good sound engineer will instruct and work with Foley artist on the best ways of creating the sounds. You can be the best Foley artist in the world but when your work doesn’t sound good, you won’t get the attention you want.

一位优秀的音响工程师将指导Foley艺术家并与他们合作制作声音的最佳方式。你可以成为世界上最好的Foley艺术家,但是当你的作品听起来不太好时,你就不会得到你想要的关注。

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FOLEY EDITING AND FITTING

After the recordings, you will need to edit and fit the sounds. Editing is a process of cleaning up the audio. You will need to reduce the noise and remove clicks and random pops. Your job is to organise the sounds so you can fit them into the movie later on.

录制完成后,您需要编辑并调整声音。编辑是清理音频的过程。您需要降低噪音并删除点击和随机弹出窗口。你的工作是组织声音,以便以后可以将它们融入电影中。

We describe fitting as matching the sounds to the picture. Even though we record Foley in real time, there will always be a small delay.

我们将拟合描述为将声音与图片匹配。即使我们实时录制Foley,总会有一个小延迟。

Fitting requires moving these sounds into place and organising the session for the Foley mixer. Fitting Foley can be a creative process. The editor will often decide which footsteps work the best with the scene and what sounds are best to leave out of the picture.

安装需要将这些声音移动到位并组织Foley调音台的会话。适合Foley可以是一个创造性的过程。编辑器通常会决定哪些足迹在场景中效果最好,哪些声音最好留在画面之外。

A trainee Foley editor will usually start with fitting footsteps and cloth. These are sounds of clothes when characters are moving around on a screen. Only after you pay your dues, you will move to more exciting things. When sounds are edited and fitted, the session is sent to a Foley mixer.

实习Foley编辑通常会从贴合脚步和布料开始。当角色在屏幕上移动时,这些是衣服的声音。只有在你支付了会费之后,你才会转向更令人兴奋的事情。编辑和安装声音后,会话将发送到Foley调音台。

FOLEY MIXING

Mixing Foley is a tough task, as it needs to work in balance with dialogue, sound effects and music.

Foley mixer will be part of a team of three people who will work together during mixing sessions. Under the supervision of a director and creative team, mixers will create the world of background sounds.

混合Foley是一项艰巨的任务,因为它需要与对话,音效和音乐保持平衡。

Foley调音台将成为三人团队的一员,他们将在混音会议期间一起工作。在导演和创意团队的监督下,混音师将创造出背景音乐的世界。

Maybe a broken glass will become an important element in the story?

The sound will be exposed and in the centre of attention. Other time, it will be just a background sound of broken glass.

We describe Foley as an invisible art. The sounds are in the background, they play to the story, and they help to describe it to the audience. We say that the audience will only notice Foley when there is something wrong with it. Next time, when you are watching a movie, try to pay a bit more attention to the sounds of the background.

Close your eyes for a bit and remember how much work went into creating the world of hidden sound.

也许破碎的玻璃将成为故事中的重要元素?

声音将被暴露并处于关注的中心。其他时候,它只是一个碎玻璃的背景声音。

我们将弗利描述为一种无形的艺术。声音在背景中,它们与故事相关,并且它们有助于向观众描述它。我们说当观众出现问题时,观众才会注意到Foley。下次,当您正在观看电影时,请尝试更多地关注背景声音。

闭上眼睛,记住创造隐藏声音世界的工作量。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

Audio Auto Ducking自动混音

通过设置轨道的属性,来实现自动混音的效果

汽车的声音必须是对应的车型

Tentacle Sync

声音同步Syncaila

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

硬件

必备硬件

  • Macbook Pro 苹果笔记本电脑
  • UPS 不间断移动电源
  • RocketStor 3122C 硬盘底座

可选硬件

  • Label Maker 标签打印机

软件

必备软件

  • Silverstack(备选:Hedge、Shotput Pro、YoYotta)
  • Davinci Resolve
  • Codex Device Manager
  • Blackmagic Disk Speed Test

可选软件

  • ArriRaw Convertor
  • ARRI Meta Extract
  • Redcine-X
  • iStat Menus
  • Label Maker
  • ARRI Color Tool
  • ARRI Frameline Composer(在线工具)

配件

必备配件

  • SD/CF 读卡器
  • 雷电扩展坞
  • 笔记本充电器(带两个)
  • usb 小台灯

可选配件

  • 车载逆变器

Activity Monitor uses binary sizing. 1GB = 1024 x 1024 x 1024. Referenced as GiBs.
Disk Files use decimal sizing. 1GB = 1000 x 1000 x 1000. Referenced as GBs.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

可以带通道的编码

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  特效

剪辑的分工

职位

工作内容

剪辑师

制定剪辑流程以及负责完成精剪

现场剪辑

粗剪协助导演防止漏拍镜头

剪辑助理

整理素材,添加元数据,同步声音,分场,文件交付

视效剪辑

特效素材的记录以及上下游交接

整理素材

01按照剪辑文件夹惯例导入素材

例如在剪辑软件中新建Audio_20170101和Video_20170101两个文件夹,分别将这一天对应的声音和画面素材导入

02添加元数据

03同步声音

根据场记单同步声音和画面,同步可以通过手动做出入点的方式,也可以通过时间码的方式。同步完需要重命名。

04重命名素材

场镜次001-01a-01 FPS48/VFX, 001-01b-01 FPS92,升格镜头要标注FPS,可以根据ALE表确认),特效镜头标VFX,在镜次后标机位方便查看。升格镜头需要变速恢复健康到正常速度再进行合板。

05分场

新建文件夹如02A,99,将重命名好的素材根据场次放置到对应文件夹,并检查素材与场记单上记的是否一致(如果缺漏素材应及时汇报),在其中新建时间线,将单独一场的镜头放入,方便剪辑师使用。

06设置关键帧画面

粗剪Rough Cut

单场戏剪辑

精剪 Final Cut

将单场戏的剪辑分配到不同的卷

卷的开头结尾都要有

标记重新构图以及做关键帧动画的素材

交付文件

注意:输出文件需要烧录信息(水印,分卷名,分卷的时码等)

交付到混音

01.Quicktimes参考(Reference QT)

02.三个Wav文件:每一卷的单声道对白,一个立体声的音效,一个立体声的音乐轨

交付到作曲

01.Quicktimes参考(Reference QT)

02.三个Wav文件:每一卷的单声道对白,一个立体声的音效,一个立体声的音乐轨

交付到调色

01.Quicktimes参考(Reference QT)

02.EDL剪辑表

03.镜头修改表

交付到特效

01.Quicktimes参考(Reference QT)

02.EDL剪辑表

03.镜头修改表

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

文件夹和文件命名

可用: [ a-z ], [ A-Z ], [ 0-9 ], [ . ], [ _ ], [ - ]

(不可用: 空格或者其他符号/字符)

文件夹结构

资产应按以下规范由DMT/DIT进行设置

第一级目录:项目名称+盘符编号(例如:CHEFS_TABLE_01_COPY01)

第二级目录:拍摄天数和拍摄日期(Day_001_20180101)

第三级目录:资产类型

  • VIDEO - 原始摄影机文件
  • AUDIO - 现场录音文件
  • LOOKS - 任何拍摄现场生成的looks (.cdl, .ccc, .edl with CDLs)
  • LUT - 任何拍摄现场使用的LUTs (.cube, .3dl)
  • ALE - 任何生成的ALE
  • PROXY -任何录制或者生成的代理, 无论是摄影机生成或通过样片制作生成 (剪辑代理/或者预览代理)
  • REPORTS - 任何数据或每天生成的报表

范例:

CHEFS_TABLE_01_COPY01/

Day_001_20161016/

VIDEO/

A001CGAL/

A002DJEU/

AUDIO/

REPORTS/

LOOKS

LUT

ALE

PROXY

手动登记表

01.盘位表——用来方便查找硬盘

02.素材表——用来查找具体卷号的素材

Silverstack输出

01.每天素材统计表——用来统计一天的数据

02.特效CSV素材表/PDF表——特效需要参考的完整元数据信息

拍摄期间特效或者其他部门索要素材,需要登记物料交接单,并通过制片签字,拍摄完之后所有备份素材移交给制片方

visual effects turnovers特效周转

off-site backup异地备份

TANDBERG

不规范文件名与卷号文件的处理方法

首先将素材原始的文件夹结构复制到备份硬盘中

然后将备份硬盘的素材名修改为dit取的前缀名称,比如C0001是本来的素材,然后修改为Sony_A001_C0001,通过增加卷号的方式,让重复素材有独一无二的文件名和卷名

LTO设备网站

https://magstor.com/pages/thunderbolt-drives

https://www.mlogic.com/collections/frontpage

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

特效剪辑工作内容:

  • 在特效公司开始工作之前为剪辑师制作需要的预合成
  • 跟踪时间线上的每一个特效镜头,并命名
  • 跟踪特效镜头的剪辑变化,这包括删除和新增的镜头,镜头的出入点变化等
  • 制作Lineup表,包含了每个镜头的细节,需要做的特效内容,每一个特效公司需要完成镜头的什么部分,每一个元素和对应镜头的时间关系
  • 制作EDLs文件,或者Pull Lists 给DI渲染特效公司需要的DPX格式的特效镜头或者元素,如果没有DI公司做这个,可能需要用达芬奇将原始文件渲染为DPX格式
  • 从特效公司收到特效镜头剪接到时间线,通过剪辑师和导演的预览得到反馈然后再发给特效公司这些信息
  • 当一个镜头最后完成,确保这个镜头已经发送给DI公司,确保是正确的版本发布
  • 不断检查以上的步骤

镜头表必须包含的信息

In-point, out-point, clip name (slate, take, camera, select), start timecode, runtime

片方的VFX Editor(Production VFX Editor)还有特效公司的In-house VFX Editor。这两个角色需要在整个后期制作当中密切配合,注意是这两个剪辑师相互对接,而不是特效公司的制片或者视效总监去对接片方的VFX Editor,否则后患无穷!最起码双方的信息通道是畅通的,而不是有中间人把话传来传去的。

简单说一下什么是VFX Pull吧,接下来可能会经常提到。在剪辑阶段,所使用的素材全部都是经过转码并压缩过的,为的是减小计算机工作的压力。但是在特效制作阶段,需要用到色彩信息保留最完整的图片序列(DPX 或 OpenEXR),这样才有队图像有最大限度的控制和调整。这些序列哪儿来的呢?这就需要剪辑输出剪辑表,DI公司(有些项目是VFX公司)根据剪辑表的信息,从相机原始拍摄素材里,把需要制作特效的片段以序列帧的方式提取出来。这就相当于过去,剪辑师提供给洗印厂剪辑列表,洗印厂根据这个表去扫描所要用的的胶片。这个提取的整个过程,就是大家经常听到的VFX Pull。

Production VFX Editor

先来说Production VFX Editor。职责之一,就是帮助剪辑师为一些将来可能需要特效制作的镜头做些简单的预合成工作,以便剪辑师和导演进行更直观的创作。需要注意的是,简单的预合工作要尽量在剪辑系统里完成,一是因为这样方便之后在做VFX Pull时,可以直接调取时间线上素材的Metadata信息;二是可以马上分辨出镜头里可能会用到的视效元素(Elements),这样在做VFX Line-up Sheet(稍后聊这个)时会更加一目了然。如果特效复杂,需要在其他软件里完成,那么务必将临时的预合成片段置于新轨之上,不要覆盖原始素材,原因如上所述。当然,更重型的项目会有大量的Previs和Postvis做占位(Placeholder)。

作为片方的VFX Editor,另一项重要工作自然就是输出物料给到特效公司:

VFX Turnover Checklist

  • Picture Reference
  • EDL
  • Avid Bin
  • Shot List
  • Line-up Sheet

特效公司的同学们,看清楚这个Checklist,少一样,对方就是在耍流氓。处于制作下游的部门和公司,一定不能羞于开口向上游开口要你们所需要的物料。

Turnover之前,一定一定一定要整理好自己的时间线!这是剪辑对其他部门的一种尊重。剪辑作为后期素材管理的一大站,需要负起更多的责任。干后期的老说前期坑后期,其实更多时候,是后坑后期!以最明确最简单的方式告诉别人接下来要做什么,是最起码的尊重。所以,为了Turnover,一个纷繁复杂的时间线就应该从这样:

变成这样

Picture Reference

特效公司需要一个只包括特效镜头的参考视频,以检查镜头有没有Pull对。这个视频上一定会烧上VFX ID,Source TC,Frame Count等信息。关于加VFX镜头号,我找到一个比较快速且一举多得的办法是使用Avid MC里的SubCap和Marker功能。下面简单说一下步骤:

1,假设你已经整理好你的时间线并为所有VFX镜头添加了带有视效镜头号的Marker,那么你就可以导出EDL了。记得在输出前,只选保留Locators(Markers)信息,3600CMX格式,这样在EDL里就会携带上Marker信息,也就是你的特效镜头号。它应该长这样:

2,到这个网页里,把你的EDL转换成SubCap文件(会编程拯救世界):https://www.shift-e.net/tools/#!/edl-to-subcap 你会得到一个文件如下所示,里面清晰的标示出了镜头号,镜头长度以及起止时间。

3,回到Avid,在空轨添加SubCap,并导入刚才生成的文件。完事儿。所有之前添加的Marker都被转换成了字幕,并且长度和素材的长度一致。(感谢伟大的EDL!)

这样,在出参考视频时就可以带上VFX的信息了。

如果素材在导入时被转换成了Video Range(Legal Range),记得在导出参考视频时,把图像重新映射回Full Range(Data Range)。因为绝大部分特效制作环境是sRGB的显示器,Video Range显示在sRGB显示器上图像看起来会略微发灰(16-235的输入错误映射在0-255的输出)。而这,会让他们抓狂的。关于颜色,又可以写一篇啦,看大家的反应吧。

在这儿强调一下,这只是一个参考视频,千万不要纠结于为什么我的画面在Nuke里看起来和QT不一样。首先你并不能确定,出视频的剪辑师就一定专业;其次,拿个QuickTime播放器去比对颜色,这辈子你也找不到答案了。曾经,就有这么一个项目,算了不说了。。。基础知识的缺乏其实不单单在国内从业者身上能看到,在有的老外那儿也一样。

EDL

输出EDL时一定不要多轨输出,要做到一个EDL对应一轨。然后,和特效公司确认Handle是多少帧,输出时按照要求设置。因为这个EDL的作用不是套底剪辑时间线,所以需要在EDL本身把Handles加上,否则Pull出来的就是不带Handle的。输出完EDL务必仔细检查,看看有没有错误的Metadata。必要的话可以先自己测试一下能否正确完整的还原,再交给其他部门。

Avid Bin

Avid的特点之一就是你可以把你工程里的某一个Bin发个别人,对方只要有Avid就可以打开,而且兼容性极高。这个Bin通常会是一条时间线(就是你做EDL的那条)。EDL能携带的信息毕竟有限,所以有时候把Avid Bin给到特效公司的VFX Editor将会是一个巨大的帮助。虽然所有素材都是离线状态,但是素材的Metadata被完整的保留了下来。

Shot List

Hiero是Foundry家的VFX镜头管理软件,也被集成到了Nuke Studio里。Nuke Studio可以下载Non-Commercial版本,有一些限制,但对镜头管理来说并无大碍。在这里,你可以导出所有镜头的基本信息到一个CSV表格里,另外还可以将每个镜头的缩略图(Thumbnails)一键导出。当然这些命令需要额外的Python脚本支持,需要的同学可以找我索取。

现在,在从Hiero导出的CSV和缩略图基础之上,你就可以做一张完整的Shot list了。表格里一般会包括,VFX ID(镜头号),缩略图,起止TC,帧数,原始素材名,剪辑名,Optical信息(位移,缩放,变速等),以及VFX制作描述。 如下图示意:

Line-up Sheet

什么是Line-up Sheet呢,举个最简单的例子。有一个特效镜头,内容是篱笆前面一只狗在追着一个女人跑。三个元素,篱笆女人和狗,都是分别拍摄的。那么特效公司怎么知道该用这三个镜头的那一段来合成一个完整的和谐画面呢?Line-up sheet就是做这个用的。这也是我之前为什么说,所有素材都要留在时间线上,这样你就可以快而准的知道,在预合的时候是怎么安排这三个元素的。

Showrunner是一款收费软件,样式有些老,但是还算好用。它可以支持ALE,Avid Bin,CSV表的导入,并把数据映射到软件里(需要手动指定)。个人测试后还是觉得CSV发挥比较稳定。所以可以直接拿之前Hiero里生成的CSV用。具体使用不再赘述,本文还是以Turnover为主,有兴趣的可以一起私下探讨,男的就免了啊。

做完Turnover,你的任务就结束了?你想多了,可能还会有第二轮Turnover,第三轮Turnover。。。。。。此外,视效剪辑师还需要对所有的特效镜头和相关数据进行持续的追踪(Tracking),以确保剪辑上的任何改动,特效公司都会在第一时间知道,否则就是大家就会陷入无尽的深渊。It's all about data.

在实际制作中,诸多问题无法在本文一一列举了,欢迎大家随时探讨。

今天只聊了Production VFX Editor的工作,特效公司In-House VFX Editor的事儿,我们放在下一篇里聊,看看该如何扮演好这个角色以更好地服务于后期项目以及公司内部的流程。

**
**

inhouse VFX剪辑

准备阶段

DI公司会把包含需要制作的镜头的参考QT、VFX Pull的EDL、镜头表,LUT,CDL,DPX序列或者EXR序列(偶尔也会碰到Raw或MOV的)等等发到视效公司。剪辑部门需要做的,是根据这些信息和图像文件,把一条时间线完整的还原出来。如下图:

截图里面最下面的一轨是参考轨(Reference Track),用于放置QT参考。注意这条QT不是用于VFX Pull的那条参考,而是声画俱有的整场戏(一个Sequence)。往上一轨是EDL,虽然内容离线,但是镜头的长度,Handle有多少,变速信息都得以保留(说到这儿,再次提醒剪辑同行们,务必把时间线的EDL整理好,这对VFX和DI都是非常宝贵的财富!)。再往上一轨V1,放置的是VFX Plates,也就是特效镜头的“底板”,可以作为分发素材的基础。这时,剪辑师需要把plate和参考QT进行比对,查看:是否有Optical效果(变速,缩放,位移,翻转,等等),DI是否有提供LUT,帧数范围是否正确。当然,还要确认素材的颜色编码方式,才能正确的还原出线性图像(你得知道图像是怎么变弯的,才能知道怎么把它变直)。在理想的世界里,这条时间线应该是一个项目的基础,最主要的制作信息和metadata,全都能在这条timeline里找到源头。

素材全部对齐之后,就可以命名规则对镜头进行重新命名然后输出啦。输出前,一定要确认好项目的IE(Intermediate Extraction)。IE的原则,以后再讲(又给自己挖一坑)。相比传统的以单个镜头为单位做输出,这样做的好处就是可以精确地判断镜头的出入点是否正确,因为客户发来的QT始终会放在参考轨,用来随时比对视效镜头(raw或序列帧)

此外,特效公司经常使用的Shotgun、ftrack等资产管理软件,已经和Hiero实现了比较完善的接驳。也就是说,只要你的时间线正确被还原,就可以一键生成所有你需要的物料,并自动把镜头的相关信息比如缩略图,参考视频,TC,帧数,同步至Shotgun或者ftrack,以供所有制作人员参考。恕我孤陋寡闻,这个流程在国内的视效公司我还没有见过。

iv style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em;-en-paragraph:true;-evernote-webclip:true;">制作阶段

视效公司剪辑组的另一个重要工作职责,就是管理并回插视效镜头。通常的流程,是剪辑组拿到其他视效部门生成的QT小样,然后再把它们替换到现有的时间线上,生成新的QT,以便视效总监和片方的负责人观看。

这样做有一些弊端。虽然视效制作时是以单个镜头为单位,但是归根结底你是在做电影,脱离了整个故事,甚至脱离了前后镜,你正在制作的镜头都会失去意义。而制作人员平时工作负载已经很满,不可能有时间把自己做好的镜头再砍掉Handles放进时间线去查看最终效果。指望着每次渲染完再交给剪辑,太耗时耗力。VFX公司会定期看dailies,但基本也都是一个镜头一个镜头翻来覆去的看。那么又回到刚才的问题,大家到底是在做电影,还是在做镜头?所以个人认为,每一个制作人员都应该能随时查看自己的镜头,在前后镜头里、整场里、加上对白声效和音乐并且调过色之后是什么状态,这样才会有一个对情节本身更加整体的认知。与其把做好了的镜头小样发给片方的剪辑让片方看,不如公司内部先整体审视一遍。这一点对于更侧重前后镜连贯性的动画制作来说,更是重中之重。

那么,为什么不用那条之前就做好的时间线,让它一有新版本提交,就自动替换到时间线上呢?Hiero可以将这条时间线共享到每一台电脑上,无论是Win,Mac还是Linux,大家看到的都是一条最新的时间线,这样一来,无论是VFX总监,还是动画师合成石特效师,都可以在不离开自己座位的情况下,随时查看自己刚做好的镜头放在Sequence里是怎样的效果。

还是看刚才那张截图。V2,V3轨分别放置了来自动画部门和合成部门生成的Quicktime,当然你也可以为更多部门去添加更多轨。这样,每一个部门做了那些镜头、做到什么程度,全部一目了然。粉色和灰色的条带,是一些光学效果比如翻转、位移之类的,还有颜色信息也就是LUT。所有颜色,都是以数据的形式(其实就是nuke里的一个节点)应用在镜头之上。

每当一个镜头的新版本被提交,这条时间线就会自动同步更新的最新版,原来的全部版本都会被保留。并且,各个版本之间可以直接互相切换,比较。其实只要公司足够重视看片流程,投入一点点开发人员在上面,一个高度自动化的流程并不难实现。为什么小投入高回报的事情人们不愿意做呢?

中间不可避免的,会出现剪辑更改的情况。这时In-house的剪辑就需要根据参考QT和EDL,以上一版剪辑为基础,分辨出所有更改,并对已有信息进行更新,让制作人员第一时间获得更改后的内容,避免造成无谓的工作。还是那句话,只要最开始的时间线信息足够完整,以后的工作将会容易很多。

交付阶段

这个交付阶段不一定是最终交付。制作过程中也充满了交付。啊!交付!

虽然整个后期阶段,对于任何颜色的应用都应是具有可逆行的。但是在制作过程中,还是需要将CDL和LUT等颜色信息应用(bake)在画面上并输出给剪辑,以保证色彩的连贯性。一定要弄清楚,每一个LUT和CDL的先后顺序,以及,画面的宽高比遮幅水印Burn-in等等等等。最简单的高效的工作方式,是在一切还没开始前,通过技术文档和Checklist等形式,明确每次Delivery的具体规格。

一般来讲,外包特效公司需要为上游(?)特效公司提供Photo jpeg编码的Quicktime。同时还需要提供给剪辑用的DNxHD(HR)编码的Quicktime给到剪辑,但要确认对方使用的剪辑软件。Final Cut Pro平台,则需要ProRes编码的Quicktime。具体的原则,参照第一篇推送。

至此,VFX的Turnover系列就结束了。其实我觉得说的还是不够,但也着实不能再说了。再说下去,这号就成特效专题号啦!

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  特效

转载和翻译自Studiobinder官网 作者Nick LaRovere

每一次电影拍摄中工作人员的对不同因素的选择都会影响拍摄的素材。这其中有的因素的重要性远远大于其他,其中之一就是焦距。

什么是焦距呢?具体来说它是测量摄影机和镜头之间关系的度量方式。在实际的应用中,焦距决定了视场,或者说决定了能捕捉到多广的视野。它还能决定视野中物体的最终呈现大小。

在这篇文章中,我们将详细解释焦距这一概念。还会通过看一些不同焦距使用的例子,来让你逐渐明白为什么焦距如此重要,并学会何时使用什么焦距来让画面产生预期的感觉。

目录

  • 理解焦距
    • 焦距的要素
    • 广角镜头(23mm-35mm)
    • 标准镜头(35mm-55mm)
    • 长焦镜头(55mm-500mm)
    • 视场
  • 焦距的创意使用
    • 压缩空间
    • 扩展空间
    • 捕捉动作
    • 增强动感
    • 移动摄影机

1
-

理解焦距

焦距的基本概念

假如摄影机和镜头就是观众,那么观众看到的范围和拍摄者一样不多不少。所以摄影的关键在于,当你讲述故事时,要考虑利用视觉叙事的所有因素。

电影拍摄中为画面所做的所有微小的创意讲述方式都很重要。当你的故事最终展现在观众面前时,这些当初微小的选择会产生很大的影响。

焦距影响着影像的“推进”感。镜头的毫米数越大,影像的“推进”感就越明显。

焦距是指光线在镜头中的汇聚点到摄影机传感器或胶片的距离,如下图所示。

焦距是从光线汇聚点到传感器或胶片的长度值

拍摄一个镜头前先从镜头的焦距开始。这里有一个更详细的焦距含义:

什么是焦距?

焦距是在无限远处聚焦时透镜中心与相机传感器或胶片的距离。透镜中心是光线在晶状体内汇聚的地方。焦距定义了给定透镜的放大率和视场。这个值通常以毫米为单位度量。定焦镜头有固定的焦距,变焦镜头的焦距是可变的,焦距的轻微改变都会改变影像的视觉效果。

为何焦距如此重要?

  • 决定视场(画面中有什么)
  • 创造视觉内容(画面感觉)
  • 改变镜头的视觉属性(画面效果)

“你想用什么大小的镜头拍摄这个?”

有时你可能会听到有人用镜头大小这个词,这和焦距的意思是一样的。但很少会听到有人用标准镜头或长镜头之类的回答这个问题。

通常你会听到特定的毫米值,即焦距。

当谈到叙事电影的制作时,焦距可以让你根据不同的镜头捕捉具有不同视觉属性的镜头。

视频一

焦距的解释

在做这些决定的时候,既有实际的考虑,也有创意性的考虑,所以对导演来说,理解焦距可能是最重要的视觉工具之一。

较长的焦距,如下图中的135毫米或85毫米,会使视角更窄,放大倍数更大。与此同时,较短的焦距,如24mm或14mm,可以带来更宽的视角和更少的放大率。

如下图第一个例子中,摄影机与被摄对象的距离相同,使用了不同焦距的镜头:

div>

同样的距离,不同的焦距

如下图第二个例子中,保持景别不变,摄影机放置在不同距离并采用了不同焦距的镜头,如下图所示:

所以记住:

镜头的毫米数是指焦距或放大率。这也可以称为镜头大小。

在StudioBinder中,你可以通过镜头规格栏轻松地选择镜头。下面就来看看它是如何运作的:View the various focal lengths you can pick

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1.2广角镜头(23mm-35mm)

广角镜头是指焦距显著地小于像场直径(底片对角线长度)的镜头。对于全画幅的摄影机,广角镜头的焦距应该小于35mm。

视频二

广角镜头的解释,用广角镜头测试

通常,只要焦距在23mm到35mm之间的镜头都可以归为广角镜头。低于23毫米的镜头仍然被认为是广角镜头,但会算入鱼眼镜头的范畴。

什么是鱼眼镜头?

鱼眼镜头是一种超广角镜头,它可以捕捉到非常宽的影像,一般在180度左右。

鱼眼镜头会产生扭曲、弯曲的影像。顾名思义,鱼眼镜头就是形容鱼在水下的视觉感官。

只要焦距在1mm到23mm之间的广角镜头都可以称为鱼眼镜头。它们经常被用来拍摄建筑物、大房间和开阔的空间,以及鸟瞰图,因为它们带有曲线的动态效果。鱼眼镜头很受欢迎,用于创造有趣的、扭曲的图像,比如脸部特写镜头。

1.3标准镜头(35mm-55mm)

标准镜头的焦距大致相同于像场直径(底片对角线长度)的镜头。对于全画幅的摄影机,焦距应该在42毫米左右。

通常,焦距在35mm到55mm之间的镜头可以归为“标准”焦距。

视频三

标准焦距镜头测试

标准镜头的视场与人眼视场相似,但有其他观点认为人眼的真实视场更接近于17mm至25mm的镜头,并具有f/3.2的光圈,所以这一点一直存在争议。

不过35mm到55mm的镜头与人眼相似的真正原因是我们的视觉注意锥,它使人眼的视野变窄。

1.4长焦镜头 (55mm-500mm)

长焦镜头是其焦距明显大于于像场直径(底片对角线长度)的镜头。对于全画幅的摄影机,焦距应该在55mm以上。

视频四

长焦镜头测试

通常,只要焦距在55mm到500mm之间的镜头都可以归为长焦镜头。你可能会听到电影摄影师或掌机把它们简称为“长镜头”。

有些长焦镜头也是摄远镜头。

什么是远射镜头?

远摄镜头是一种特殊的长焦镜头。它的内部设计提供的焦距比镜头本身的长度长得多。与其他镜头一样,远射镜头也有固定焦距和变焦镜头。

远射镜头的焦距一般超过70毫米,并且有不同的尺寸。任何长焦距为300mm或更高的远射镜头都被认为是超级远射镜头。

远射镜头常用于拍摄野生动物或运动。它们能使远处的物体显得更近。此外,在特写人像拍摄中,远射镜头往往会保持被摄对象视觉的均衡,几乎不变形的特点。

1.5什么是视场?

视场是你在影像平面上看到的空间大小。它决定了影像中有多少范围会被捕捉。

如果你要拍摄故事中英雄角色的镜头:

一个更广的镜头可以显示出英雄威武的身躯,提供了一个更广的视场。

焦距长的镜头可能只捕捉到英雄的脸,提供了一个较小的视场。

为了阐明我们在上文第一节中所讨论的,一个焦距较短镜头(毫米数小)提供更广阔的视场。焦距较长的镜头(毫米数多)给你一个更窄的视场。

下图说明了该原理:

要考虑的事情很多,要记住的事情也很多,但是计划是至关重要的。幸运的是,准备镜头表使您的工作更容易。

视频五

使用镜头表来记录镜头细节和每个镜头的焦距

有些电影完全是用广角镜头或长镜头拍摄的,因为它们所创造的影像风格不同,在其他情况下,导演会选择通过焦距的逐渐变化来展示故事的逐渐变化。

点击下面的视频,看看专业摄影师是如何管理他的镜头的。

视频六

计划镜头来讲述故事

焦距可能看起来纯粹是技术上的事情,其中确实也包含了很多机械方面的知识。但焦距和镜头选择等技术细节最终是为你的故事服务的。

对焦距、视场和镜头的了解能让你更好地协调你的镜头,传达你想要表达的情感。这是我们将在下一章进一步探讨的内容。

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2
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焦距的创意使用

电影技巧之镜头的使用

2.1压缩空间

较长的焦距压缩影像,使背景看起来更接近主体。这种压缩还会导致彼此背后的对象看起来比实际距离更近。

在本质上,你可以创建用一个较长焦距的镜头拍摄出浅景深背景和主体扁平的视觉效果。这是一种变形的方式,称为镜头压缩。

可以利用压缩空间来实现以下目的。

制造悬念

来自《锅匠,裁缝,士兵,间谍》的片段是一个夸张的例子,因为他们使用了非常长的2000mm焦距的镜头拍摄。而大多数常用长焦距镜头顶多在300毫米左右。

这个片段突出体现了长焦距镜头可以用于有趣的创意拍摄,比如在这个场景中制造的一种危机感。

然而,这其实是通过操纵视角让着陆飞机比它们看起来更远来保证演员的安全性。

视频七

焦距和浅景深在《锅匠,裁缝,士兵,间谍》中的应用

建立亲密关系

镜头压缩可以让两个人物感觉更近,更亲密,就像来自《办公室》的这一场戏。

如果你看一下场景中这个画面的不同之处,更长焦的镜头画面会让霍莉和迈克尔感觉更亲近,这在其故事语境中是合适的。

利用焦距压缩空间在《办公室》中的应用

焦距和浅景深在《办公室》中的应用

电影继续使用长焦镜头拍摄,这使得霍22c9f0924ae3c4ad4094b96e49379f8" type="image/jpeg" width="1280" />

在《办公室》中焦距用来加强亲密感

影像看起来霍莉和迈克尔是肩并肩的。这个亲密的时刻,当她抓住并吃掉草莓时,观众会被迈克尔看着她的眼神所打动。

直观地传达给观众。

制造偷窥感

焦距越长,拍摄对象与背景的距离就越远。这种视角与我们通常看世界的方式非常不同。

由于这些因素,较长的镜头可以创造出人物被监视的感觉(尤其是当与其他技术相结合时)。

这可以让观众有一种他们正在观看私人活动的感觉。

长焦镜头在短片《Sacramentum》中的使用

在短片《Sacramentum》的这一帧画面中,各种技巧的结合给人一种神秘的感觉。

具体来说,剧情中一个邪教分子把了这种感觉。

2.2扩展空间

较广的焦距会夸大物体之间的距离。换句话说,物体越靠近就越大,越远离就越小。

通常使用短焦距来完成以下工作。

丰富场景

这是广角镜头扩展空间的一个例子。看看下面这个很受欢迎的预告片,数一数有多少广角镜头(甚至鱼眼镜头)。

视频八

看看鱼眼镜头是如何在预告片中扩大空间的

远的物体看起来更小,近的物体看起来更大,比人类肉眼通常看到的还要大。

这包括与正常焦距和长焦距相比,使背景显得更远。这种镜头通常用于景观和建筑,因为它增强了现有的形状和图像的比例,以增强视觉趣味。

分离角色

因为更广的焦距会夸大靠近画面物体的大小,这能给观众一种就在角色旁边的感觉,接近私人的感觉。

视频九

在科幻短片中,广角镜头传达出孤立感

对观众来说,这是一个更客观的视角,因为这种视角就像坐在朋友旁边。

如果使用长镜头,他的面部特征就会变得扁平,给观众一种他们在远处看着他的印象,而不是和他一起经历一些事情。

这是一个相当微妙的差别,但所有的微小视觉选择累积起来时候。事实上,你可以达到相反的效果——让你的角色看起来孤独——用广角镜头夸大他们所处的空间,让他们看起来很小。

2.3捕捉动作

较长的焦距会夸增强运动感。

为什么会这样?

第一个原因是由于长焦距的空间压缩,画面中的物体在背景中移动得更快。

没有什么比给你看《速度与激情》中的这一幕更好的例子了。电影制作者在整部电影中都使用了这种动作技巧。

视频十

在《速度与激情》中焦距的使用

另一个原因是由于长镜头的放大,即使是摄影机操作者最轻微的动作也会被极大地夸大。结合视觉压缩,这可能是一个理想的效果,创造了紧迫感和能量。

然而,它很容易被过度使用,如果被过度使用,可能会让观众迷失方向头晕目眩,所以请记住避免这一点。

2.4夸大运动


广角镜头和较短的焦距增加了被摄主体在接近或远离摄影机时速度的极大变化。

这是由于广角镜头夸大了物体之间的距离而产生的一种作用。由于距离较近的物体看起来更大,当你的镜头越广,当物体靠近时,它在画面中的速度就越快。

视频十一

镜头增强了《少数派报告》的追逐力度

这增加了物体远离或向摄影机移动时的速度的变化。为了创造更强烈的向摄影机移动或远离摄影机的效果,你需要使用广角镜头。

广角镜头的另一个作用是,它能将相机抖动的感觉降到最低,从而使你的镜头更加平滑。

具体来说广角镜头可以用来夸大以下内容。

角色的速度

追逐再次是一个很好的例子,如何使用广角镜头的优势。如果你想让坏人在走廊里追赶你的英雄,你可以用这个技巧让他们的动作看起来比实际更快。

视频十二

《谍海军魂》中广角镜头的应用

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这不仅使场景更令人兴奋,而且会增加你的英雄的风险,因为你几乎觉得他无法逃脱。

移动主体

当然,增强一个人速度方法并不是唯一功能。它几乎适用于任何东西,包括汽车。

视频十三

在《美国风情画》中广角镜头的应用

让一辆车以高速接近观众,会给你的场景增添紧张感。

面部特征

由于长焦镜头和广角镜头会压缩或夸大物体距离,这也会影响人脸在画面中的形象。

例如,较长焦的镜头会使面部扁平。另一方面,较广的镜头往往会夸大面部特征,或者至少夸大离镜片最近的部分。

当然,如果你的拍摄对象离相机很远,这种效果不会很明显,但如果拍摄对象离你很近,就会对你的镜头产生很大的影响。

2.5移动摄影机

拍摄的镜头如果增加摄影机移动,事情会变得更加复杂,因为在物理上改变主体和背景的的距离。

或许在你的下一个项目中,可能会很兴奋地拍摄一个斯坦尼康镜头,这意味着你会随着你的拍摄对象移动摄影机。

想想你想让观众有什么样的感觉,然后让焦距、斯坦尼康、运动速度和美术设计合力产生你想要的感觉。考虑得越多,结果就越好。

视频十四

移动摄影机,使用不同的镜头来讲述你的故事

根据你使用的镜头,你的影像会根据焦距产生的效果而改变。

这就是为什么学习焦距对你的影像的不同影响是如此重要,最终是为了你的观众。

当你知道如何使用可用的工具时,你就可以根据你的目的来使用它们,比如为了达到喜剧效果。

利用焦距和相机运动的力量,一种独特的技术是著名的“眩晕”效果,由希区柯克和后来的皮尔伯格等电影制作人推广开来。

视频十五

轨道推进和变焦可以制造出“眩晕”效果

产生这种效果的原因是,它利用了镜头压缩图像的方式与摄影机的物理运动之间的关系,从而使视觉视角发生扭曲。

另一个用途是标志性的“Bayhem”镜头,它给镜头增添了戏剧性。

通过让被摄对象的移动方向与摄影机的移动方向相反,而且使用长焦镜头,这夸大了运动。

由于影像的压缩,背景似乎从主体身边掠过。

视频十六

迈克尔·贝使用焦距带来“Bayhem”效果

原文链接https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/focal-length-camera-lenses-explained/

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

【UNITS OF FILM 电影的单位】

格(Frame):一般电影的一秒包含24格画面

镜头(Shot):camera rolls from start to stop 摄影机启动纪录至停止

场景(Scene): beginning, middle and end – same time and place 发生再同一地点同一时间的完整纪录

序列(Sequence ):major phase of action (Wedding Sequence) 一个主要事件的完整记录(例如电影《教父》中的婚礼序列)

【心理完成作用】

知觉机制经由相关的感官印象,将影像的视觉片段组合,以及填入遗漏的视觉讯息,而达到完整稳定的心智设定,这过程称为心理完成作用(psychological closure)

【景框构图】

视觉构成:表演动作、戏剧、灯光、服装、道具、布景…等。

场面调度:源自法国剧场,原义是舞台的部位。应用于电影,为视觉元素的流动韵律,包含动作的安排表演、灯光、布景、道具、构图、拍摄方式等元素。

布局Blocking

覆盖机位:Coverage

构图原则:依照影片的内容,要给观众看到什么?表达什么心理情境?

【构图原则】

主体位置

平衡/倾斜

三分原则

偶数/奇数

线条图形

创造景深:Z(z-axis)轴(画面深度),前景─中景─背景、广角

创造荧幕外空间:出入镜、视线方向

景框边缘:头顶空间(head room) 鼻前空间(nose room) 视线空间(look space)

【距离的视觉心理】

亲密距离:大特写、特写

个人距离:中近景

社会距离:中景、远景

公众距离:远景、大远景

摄影机离被摄物越远,观众的态度越中立

卓别林:「喜剧用远景,悲剧用特写」

【镜头语言】Frame OF SHOTS 镜头的景别

大特写(extreme close-up,ECU/XCU)

特写(close-up,CU):将主体从周遭环境孤立出来,强调细部

中近景(Medium close-up shot,MCU )

中景(medium shot,MS):呈现主体及部份环境,从膝或腰上景

全景(full shot,FS):

远景(long shot,LS):强调主体与环境关系

大远景(extreme long shot,LS/XLS):史诗型电影

【建构语言】

建立镜头(establishing shot/master shot)

建立场景和位置(远景─中景─特写,特写─中景─远景)

观点镜头(point-of-view,POV shot)

反应镜头

旁跳镜头Cutaway(CA)

插入镜头Insert

【人物景框】

半身镜头(bust shot)

膝上镜头(knee shot)

两人镜头(two-shot)

三人镜头(three-shot)

过肩镜头(over-the-shoulder shot,O/S)

【摄影角度与视觉心理】ANGLES OF SHOTS

Eye-Level 平视镜头

仰角镜头/低角度镜头(low-angel shot)

俯角镜头/高角度镜头(high-angel shot)

鸟瞰镜头(bird’s-eye view)

倾斜镜头(tilted shot/canted sho/tDutch Angle )

极仰视镜头Extreme Low Angle

【拍摄人物方位与视觉心理】

完全正面(full front)─面对摄影机,亲近参与

四分之一侧面(quarter turn)─部份参与

侧面(profile)─人物注视右方或左方,较疏离

四分之三侧面(the three-quarter)─更疏离

背对摄影机(back to camera)─排拒或不自觉

【摄影机运动与视觉心理】

升降镜头crane:如演唱会,定场镜头

直摇title(title up / title down)

横摇pan

横移truck

推近dolly in

拉远dolly out

镜头推近zoom in

镜头拉远zoom out

跟拍

手持Handheld

【摄影结合剪接思考】

镜头长度

镜头节奏

视线方向

摄影机180度工作轴线

【镜头运用的"五个观点"】

一,第一人称

也就是俗称的"主观观点"模仿角色的眼睛所及视线拍摄.

二,第二人称,也就是俗称的"反跳",当主角在跟另一个角色对峙,目光交错,主角的主观视线看到另一个角色时,另一

个角色也面对面看的主角.

Tips:拍摄方法:请该角色眼睛注视着摄影机镜头里. (这个观点比较难理解,举例说:就像是模特儿的海报,都是眼神性感的盯着你一样)

三,第三人称

也就是俗称的"旁观观点"角色以外的观点,是模拟"观众" 也在"现场" 的视线, 可使观众更容易融入剧情。类似第二人称,当主角在跟另一个角色对峙,目光交错,第一个画面A主角的视线看着B角色说话(如视线向右),第二个画面B角色也看着A主角说话(视线向左)。这会造成观众认为双方是相互面对对谈。 (如骇客任务中,基努李维在公园长椅上,与智者聊天的镜头)当然也可使用同一画面中,拍摄两人对谈的镜头,这都是第三人称的镜头应用。

四,偷窥观点,

镜头面前有前景遮住部分视线,好像是某人或某只狗躲在某处偷窥的视点,而通常镜头前需要有个物体当前景挡住部分视线,比较有说服力.(举例:军人躲在树丛后面拿着枪监视敌人)

五,无生命观点,

超现实的去模仿没有眼睛的无生命物体的观点.(举例:工厂输送带上的产品,将摄影机的位置摆在输送带上方,模仿产品的位置与想像视角,拍摄出产品经过工厂输送带层层加工的过程,这样也表现出了这个产品被生产出来的心路历程,帮没有生命的产品生动的表达出有如人一般的意识与观点)

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

**22 FEBRUARY 2017**

written by Mike

WHAT IS FOLEY?

Foley is an art of creating a soundscape in the movie, game or TV production. We can describe Foley as hidden sounds. The sounds that you are not paying attention to but without them, the story wouldn’t be believable to the audience. As you may already think, I am not talking about explosions, space ship sounds or car chases. We call this sounds design.

Foley is footsteps and cutlery in a busy restaurant scene. The sound of a hand touching a table or a simple door creak. Foley is usually hyper-real, that means the sounds are exaggerated. They are louder and more prominent than reality. All these are techniques to tell a better story.

Creating a believable soundscape, one that is not noticed by an audience, is a complex but exciting task. Every production is different, but there are a few standard procedures in executing a great Foley recording.

** SPOTTING**

Spotting is an undertaking of writing down a list of all Foley sounds that a director can select for a recording.

A team of editors will watch a scene and note every action that may or may not need a sound effect. Imagine a dinner scene.

Will you need the sound of cutlery?

A sound of pouring wine into a glass?

Or maybe someone is moving a chair around the table?

Every little thing like that you will need to note down. It is always better to have more options of recorded sounds than less. Spotting is a tedious task, but it can be an eye-opener for someone who is just starting out in the industry.

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FOLEY RECORDING

Before Foley recording sessions begin a creative team decides on a priority of sounds to record. A standard movie production can have thousands of Foley sounds listed, but you don’t need all them. A good vision of the final product is important.

When the list for the recording is ready, the session starts.

Recordings take place on Foley stage, a big, treated room with a large screen and many **different props. **On the screen, you can see scenes from the movie. And then in real time, a Foley artist acts the sounds, and Foley engineer captures them.

Foley artist is the most important part of the Foley team and the most creative. Foley artists must use their imagination with props and then in real time mimic what is happening on screen. When the scenes play, there is no sound or dialogue. It is just a picture.

Remember our dinner scene?

The Foley artist can use a bit of metal to create the sound of cutlery. Maybe he will use a piece of wood or an old case to create the sound of a chair. He or she will use a different kind of shoes for on-screen characters. And create a different kind of movement styles.

A great Foley artist can turn a normal dinner scene into a lively and exciting event. But we can’t undermine the job of a Foley sound engineer. A choice of a correct microphone type, microphones setup and correct levels are **crucial. **The difference can leave you with either beautiful Foley sound or a mediocre and noisy one.

A good sound engineer will instruct and work with Foley artist on the best ways of creating the sounds. You can be the best Foley artist in the world but when your work doesn’t sound good, you won’t get the attention you want.

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FOLEY EDITING AND FITTING

After the recordings, you will need to edit and fit the sounds. Editing is a process of cleaning up the audio. You will need to reduce the noise and remove clicks and random pops. Your job is to organise the sounds so you can fit them into the movie later on.

We describe fitting as matching the sounds to the picture. Even though we record Foley in real time, there will always be a small delay.

Fitting requires moving these sounds into place and organising the session for the Foley mixer. Fitting Foley can be a creative process. The editor will often decide which footsteps work the best with the scene and what sounds are best to leave out of the picture.

A trainee Foley editor will usually start with fitting footsteps and cloth. These are sounds of clothes when characters are moving around on a screen. Only after you pay your dues, you will move to more exciting things. When sounds are edited and fitted, the session is sent to a Foley mixer.

** FOLEY MIXING**

Mixing Foley is a tough task, as it needs to work in balance with dialogue, sound effects and music.

Foley mixer will be part of a team of three people who will work together during mixing sessions. Under the supervision of a director and creative team, mixers will create the world of background sounds.

Maybe a broken glass will become an important element in the story?

The sound will be exposed and in the centre of attention. Other time, it will be just a background sound of broken glass.

We describe Foley as an invisible art. The sounds are in the background, they play to the story, and they help to describe it to the audience. We say that the audience will only notice Foley when there is something wrong with it. Next time, when you are watching a movie, try to pay a bit more attention to the sounds of the background.

Close your eyes for a bit and remember how much work went into creating the world of hidden sound.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

**电影的语言**

Film and video programs are efforts at communicating and just like speaking English, tapping out Morse code, or waving semaphores, there is a whole language that can be learned including words, phrases, grammar, punctuation, rules, and common practices. And like any other language, the more thoroughly you master it, the more effectively you can communicate.

While the writer conceives the story, and the director realizes it, it is you, the editor who is the storyteller; given the task of organizing the thoughts and ideas and transmitting the intended message to the audience.

Communication is both an art and a craft. Part inspiration and part perspiration. Effective editing requires both aspects, and while you can't necessarily be taught the art of eloquence, you can study and practice the rules of the language, and hone your craft so you can edit quicker, more efficiently, and communicate more effectively because of it.

Shots As Words 就像文字般的镜头

Just as words are the building blocks of a written language, individual shots are the building blocks of the film language. And different shots can be thought of as different parts of speech, serving different purposes and answering different questions.

You are undoubtedly very familiar with the questions: who, what, where, when, why and how. These questions are deeply ingrained in all of our brains because we are constantly asking them-consciously or unconsciously-about everything we see and do in the world. The answers to those questions are precisely the elements our brains use to make sense of the world. And coincidentally, the are the basic components of story.

You probably know someone who tells great stories, perhaps a grandfather or a crazy aunt. You also probably know someone who can't tell a joke to save their life. Did you ever stop to ask what makes one person a great storyteller and someone else a bad one?

Effective storytelling requires doling out the who, what, where, when, why and how answers in equal parts and just in time as the listener is wondering about them. If you dwell too long on one of the questions,

without answering the others, the story becomes tiresome and the audience stops listening.

"Three guys walk into a bar. The bar is smoky and dark, there are three bare-bulb lamps dangling, and there's a cigarette burn on one of the tables. The floor is kinda dirty, it's wooden and well worn, and there are about a dozen chairs lined up before the bar...."

Enough where already! Who are the three guys and why are they there? Even a simple joke can be mercilessly ruined by a storyteller who doesn't know this basic rule.

As an editor, your primary job is to control the flow of information, to guide the viewer to pay attention to certain details in a certain order, and to control the point of focus both within the frame and within the story. There are many tools to aid you in this endeavor, but the most basic of these tools are the specific shots you choose. In fact, different types of shots inherently answer each of these questions.

Who

In the film language, the who question is typically answered with the close-up (CU). The primary point of focus in any close-up is the subject's face. This framing typically mimics the experience of what you would see in real life if you were conversing with a person. A close-up is an intimate portrait of someone, more intimate than you would ever get with a stranger. This is part of why fans inherently feel as though they "know" famous actors. (Though the feeling is certainly not mutual!)

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Who Are They?: A Close-up gives insight into who a character is.

These shots leave little doubt that one is a no-nonsense sourpuss and the other is a

idealistic dreamer.

Close-ups can vary widely based on camera position, lens choice, and other production considerations, but ultimately you can count on such a shot to answer this fundamental question.

If you were to go too long without providing close-ups your audience will lose track of whose story they're following and they will very likely lose interest. This is especially common in complex action scenes where there is so much what and how to convey to move the story forward that it's easy to forget to keep the who present in the viewer's mind. But do so at your own peril. Even the most spectacular battle scene can fall flat if the audience loses track of who it is that's engaged in the fight.

What

If you want to communicate what is going on, you probably need to show a subject performing an activity, and typically, this is conveyed in a medium shot (MS). To clarify, dramatic events are broken down into hundreds of discrete actions that can be described by active verbs (to lift, to threaten, to save, to give, to arrest, and so on.) While sometimes such actions might be subtle and internal enough to be conveyed in a CU, or complex enough to require a sequence of shots, very often the MS provides enough distance from the subject's eyes to move the focus off of their identity, but is still close enough to emphasize what it is they're doing.

What's Going On?: These Medium Shots are perfect for showing a variety of activities.

Where

The location of an event is critical. Sometimes this element is deliberately omitted for a while to emphasize suspense or disorientation, but if you go too long without answering this question, the audience will likely grow weary and eventually disengage from your story. The where question is nearly always answered with a Long Shot (LS) though depending on the nature of the scene, sometimes a medium long shot (MLS) or a shot even further away than an LS such as a wide shot (WS) might do the trick.

ly: Verdana, sans-serif; color: rgb(4, 3, 3);">Where Are We? 3, 3);">: Wider Shots clearly show a person in an environment.

The LS shows a subject in an environment. Even if you know the answers to the other questions, watching a scene without having a sense of where it's taking place is literally disorienting. This makes it harder for our brains to process what's going on, and ultimately we start drifting away. Inevitably this leads to the worst possible audience reaction: changing the channel.

One case where this question is frequently omitted is in non-fiction or documentary style shows that contain a lot of interviews. Just because you're dealing with footage of a talking head doesn't mean that the viewer doesn't crave some context to put it in. Incorporating even a brief shot of the room where the interview is taking place, or at least using a wider angle of the interview will show the type of location and provide the answer to this pressing question. (Is it a university office? A jail cell? A baseball diamond? The Roosevelt room in the White House?)

Sometimes, when you don't have the wide shot you need, a clever editor may be able to indicate at least a hint of the "where" using inserts or cutaways to objects or details of the environment, such as a toy on the desk, a diploma on a wall, a bird in a tree nearby, and so on. But one way or another, your audience is dying to know: where does this scene take place?

When

The when question can seem tricky, especially when trying to simplify it to a single shot type. When can mean what period in history, how long before or after an important story event, or it can mean at what point in the overall story arc. The quintessential when shot is the extreme-long shot (ELS or XLS), which illustrates the subject traversing such a vast space that there is a sense of how much time it will take. This could be a car traversing an endless stretch of highway, camels crossing the desert, or a ship in a huge swath of ocean.

: The framing here emphasizes how tiny the camel caravan is

compared to the huge

desert they must traverse. Adding to the travelers' burden is the further information

that the sun is setting

and they're nowhere near any destination.

The idea here is of a where shot so vast that the connection between space and time becomes apparent and it answers the when instead. I know it's very Einsteinian, but trust me, it works. This can be a great shot to help indicate not only the scope of the task at hand, but also to symbolically indicate where in the overall story arc your characters are.

Of course the when question can be answered in different ways too. Sometimes a CU of a particular object, such as futuristic computer panel, or an antiquated telephone can signal the time period, or even the most obvious and explicit of all: a shot of a clock.

Tick Tock: Of course this shot would ostyle="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: black;">or if you repeat the shot later to illustrate the time that has passed between the two shots.

Why

This question points to the internal decision making of your subject, and when you want to delve into someone's thoughts, the classic shot to use is an extreme close-up (ECU or XCU or sometimes BCU for big close-up).

What's He Thinking?: ECUs like this one get the viewer wondering what the subject is thinrif; color: black;">The decision making going on in there can serve as motivation for the action he takes next.

It's interesting that while a close-up gives the viewer the sense that they are in an intimate relationship with the subject, when you get even closer, it's like moving right inside the subject's head. The audience goes from relating to the subject as other to identifying with the subject his or herself.

Some why questions may require a more complex approach, using a sequence of shots to explain a bit of backstory or perhaps a close-up on an object or detail that carries emotional significance in the context of the story.

Memories Inspire: In this show, the young photographer reminisces about her

This serves as motivation for the action she takes in the following scene.

This is also a case where the magic of juxtaposing two shots can suggest cause and effect. For example, if you constructed a sequence so that a shot of a woman slamming a door preceded a shot of a man signing divorce paperwork, it would imply that the wife's exit prompted the husband to finally go through with the divorce. However, you could tell a very different story by simply rearranging the two shots so the paper is signed before the woman leaves; suggesting that the husband's decision to sign provoked the wife to leave.

How

While the why is usually a very internal aspect of the story requiring suggestive shots and editing techniques, the how is just the opposite. This question is very external and is usually answered using either medium close-ups (MCU) of a subject performing a physical action (opening a door, lifting a manhole cover, packing a suitcase, etc.) or a series of CUs or ECUs of specific actions (pulling a trigger, snapping a latch closed, operating a piece of machinery, etc.)

A Very Particular Procedure: The MCU is a perfect shot to show just how

memily: Verdana, sans-serif; color: rgb(4, 3, 3);">likes his tea prepared. This particular example does double duty; since the teacup in

the foreground

is like a built-in Close-up of the action itself.

The MCU has a fundamentally different tone than a CU does. It may seem subtle when just comparing the two shots objectively, but in context, a CU is far more intimate and subjective, while an MCU retains enough distance from the subject to maintain a disengaged perspective.

A Chemical Process: In this darkroom sequfamily: Verdana, sans-serif; color: black; letter-spacing: -0.05pt;">photographs is detailed

With Whom

There's one more question that you must answer to satisfy your audience's unconscious need to make sense of the information you are communicating. Whenever you have a scenario with multiple subjects, their relative proximity, posture, and the power dynamic between them is an essential story element. With two people, this information is, by definition, contained in a 2-shot.

: 2-shopan style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, s"font-size: 10pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif;elationship dynamics that

are fundamental<olor: rgb(5, 5, 6);">to making sense of the story you are telling.

Naturally, scenes containing more than two subjects will require other, wider shots to illustrate the relative dynamics of all subjects.

Reflected Beauty: This careful blocking allows for all of the important characters to

be visible in the same shot.

In the shot below, this group shot of all seven women serves as a set-up, and from

here on out in the scene,or: rgb(3, 3, 4);">the shots are limited to 2-shots and 3-shots.

Often you can deal with one pair of subjects at a time, or group subjects into "factions" creating a "2-shot" where the two subjects each comprise multiple elements.

Us Against Them: These two matching angles treat the pairs of characters pt; font-family: Verdana, sans-serif; color: rgb(5, 5, 6);">Putting it all Together

Remember it's not just about including all of these different shot types in your sequence, but about anticipating which questions your audience will be wondering and answering them just before they bubble up to the viewer's conscious mind. By the time other guy?" you've already lost them.

Understanding Shot Sizes While nothing terrible will happen if you

make up your own names for things, it can be helpful to use a standardized terminology for basic shot sizing. The following graphic described the most common framings for a single human subject.

The Full Shot (FS or LS) contains the whole human body. It's considered bad framing to cut off someone's feet. The position and stature of someone's feet communicates a lot of information. (Are they standing firm? Teetering on one side? Shuffling?) Simultaneously, this shot identifies where the subject is located.

The Medium Shot (MS) should comfortably include the pelvis, but not the knees. A lotrom the pelvis. Cutting a shot off at the waist is an awkward middle ground between an MS and an MCU; we're further away, so facial expression is harder to see, but withohe MS is typically used to show what someone is doing.

The Medium Close-up (MCU) includes the whole upper carriage like a traditional bust. The way someone holds their shoulders and back conveys a lot of information about their character. An MCU is far enough away to give the subject a respectable amount of space, but close enough to see their face.

The Close-up (CU) should be significantly tighter than the MCU, typically including the collar, but not much of the shoulders. The emphasis here should be on the facial expression, not on body movement. Because the CU is all about the subject's face, it encapsulates their identify, which is why it's the perfect shot to answer .

The Extreme Close-up (ECU or XCU) [not pictured] could be a very tight framing around a character's eyes, mouth, or some other individual detail. As described above, generally the ECU is a way to get "inside the character's head." This is just as true for interviwees as it is for superheros or ingénues.

Expanding Your Vocabulary

As you increase your cinematic vocabulary, you learn to recognize how different shots answer different questions. And there are more than just those six basic questions but that's where it all starts. You can also think about how certain shots can be used for different purposes. For example, certain shots can serve as Establishing shots, Reaction shots, Inserts, Cutaways, POVs, and so on.

Establishing Shots are used to identify a location and have traditionally been used to introduce a scene. While most commonly they are Wide Shots or Long Shots, sometimes a small familiar detail can serve as an establishing shot. For example, if you cut to a new scene, and begin on a CU of a blinking "Code Blue" light, you quickly inform the audience that you're in a hospital.

Feeling Friendly: The scene that follows this shot all takes place inside the hotel. We never need to see this outside shot again unless we return here later in the show.

Reaction shots are usually just close-ups of a specific performance showing a subject's reaction to a particular event. Often a reaction shot can be stolen from a different take, or even a different scene. There are many stories of an editor finding a few seconds of footage of an actor with his guard down after the director called cut, and using that clip as a reaction somewhere else in the scene.

What's fascinating about a reaction shot is that it only takdiv>

generate entirely different emotions in the audience depending on what it is that is being reacted to. Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov famously explored this concept in the early 20th century.

Inserts and Cutaways, are invaluable to an editor trying to cut around problems in a scene, or trying to cut some time out of a sequence. Inserts are CUs of objects that have already been seen within a scene, such as a wine bottle or a gun. Cutaways are similar, but the subject of a cutaway is something that has not been seen in any of the other shots. For example, in a scene set in a park, you might cut away to a shot of dogs frolicking, even though we've never seen the dogs before. In another location a cutaway might be a clock on a wall, or other diners in a restaurant.

Have a Cupcake: An insert of the camera-case lunchbox is need to emphasize how

extreme a photography

geek this character is. The action of picking up the cupcake provides the perfect

opportunity to cut to it.

Note also, that the angle on the insert is the POV of the character.

icks up the wine bottle in the wide shot, that's the only timeays can be used almost anywhere you need to escape from the main action. Of course, the more craftily and elegantly you work the cutaway into the scene, the smoother and less distracting it will be. So, for example, if there was a moment where an actor looked off screen, that might be a perfect time to cut to those frolicking dogs; thereby creating the impression that it was a point-of-view shot (POV).

There are many other shot types and uses you will learn as you gain more experience. And just like learning any other language, the more expansive your vocabulary, the more precisely (and more eloquently) you will be able to communicate. Don't forget also that shots are dynamic and change, a single shot can transform from one type to another through a camera move or through blocking.

Using Verbs

If you think of shots as nouns, you can think of edit points as verbs. Every time you move from one shot to another, you have a variety of choices about how to connect the two elements. You can choose a continuity cut, where the time and action remains continuous across the two shots; you can employ a jump cut,, where time or space is deliberately mismatched; you may make a scene cut, where you transition from one location or event to another; you can use a cross dissolve to simulate time passage, or perhaps a transition from one mental state to another, and so on.

Remember that ultimately your goal is to communicate a story by controlling the viewer's point of focus. Every time you must end one shot and begin another, you create an opportunity for your audience to disengage, so great care must be made in maintaining focus across those transitions.

Rules of Grammar

I know you may think I'm taking this "film as language" metaphor a

little too far, but the truth is, it's not a metaphor. It literally is a

language, albeit, not a literal one. It's a visual language (and don't think that all the audio elements that go into constructing a sequence aren't just as important, but that's another article entirely).

Just like increasing your vocabulary helps you communicate more effectively, so does learning the common rules of grammar. Most of these rules are intended to hide the artifice of filmmaking so your audience isn't distracted by every cut, or off wondering about how the film was made instead of just getting immersed in the story being told. Now don't worry, just like all rules, sometimes they only exist to be broken, but a broken rule only has value by standing out while you follow them the rest of the time.

Every Shot Must Provide New Information

Perhaps the most fundamental rule of editing is that you should only cut when you absolutely must. The only reason you should cut at all is when moving the story forward requires information not present in the current shot. For example, if you're watching an MCU of a cop who pulls a gun out of his holster, and you can't see the gun in that MCU, you would need to cut to a shot showing that critical story element. If you were on an MS in the first place instead of the MCU, you might not need to cut at all to see the action. However to know whether the cop is frightened or furious or making a joke, you very well might need to cut to a CU.

If instead, you had a single shot that started out on his face, then tilted down to show the gun, then back up to see his reaction, you very well might not need to cut at all, at least until you wanted to see who or what he's pointing that gun at.

Cut on Action

Because every cut is an opportunity for your audience to stop thinking about your story and start wondering what they're going to have for dinner, or where they parked their car, or whether or not they have to use the bathroom, or a hundred other possible distractions, you need to do everything you can to keep them watching across that edit point.

One of the best ways to do this is by using action within the frame to motivate and to hide the edit itself. The action within the frame can be very subtle; if a person simply moves his eyes and looks a different direction, that might be a perfect frame to make your cut, provided that the other side of the edit reveals what it is he just looked at.

Follow the Eyeline: In this scene, the sound of a car crash prompts the character to suddenly look up,

providing a perfect cut point for his POV of the fender-bender below. Note that this also an example of a

cutaway; the fender-bender is in the environment, but was never seen in any prior shot.

Experienced editors are constantly making tiny mental notes of every such action in the footage they have to work with. Head turns, hand movements, eye glances, these are an editor's saving graces, because they provide a reason for the viewer to keep watching after the cut is made. Be sure to make a note of them!

Passing the Buck: One character passes his driver's license to the other, allowing

us to cut on the

movement of the ID card to the reverse needed to show the next story beat.

Tying Things Up: In this example, the action of tying the scarf provides ample

opportunity to cut back

pt. The idea is to keep the viewer's attention, so if they're watching the movement within the frame and that same movement continues on the other side of the cut, they won't notice the edit-even though the perspective has changed and even though the two shots may have been shot on different days, the continuity of action will make your edit seem perfectly fluid, in fact it will make it invisible.

If the speed of the action is different in the two shots, this makes your job a bit harder, and you may need to experiment with rolling the edit

What is least desirable is to make the cut before or after the entire action takes place; as that undermines the whole point of cutting on the action itself. If the speeds are so different that this is your only choice, you may be better off looking for an entirely different action to cut on.

Split Edits Whenever Possible

Another way you can effectively hide your edit points and keep your audiences' attention rapt is to offset the audio and video edits to create a split edit.

This way, the audio is continuous while the picture is changing and the picture is continuous while the audio is changing, giving the viewers something to follow along with, even while the other component is changing.

What, No K Edit?: There are two types of split edits, video leads audio and audio leads video. Because of the way the tracks look on the timeline, these are commonly called L-cuts and J-cuts.

While splitting your edits in either direction does achieve the desired goal of maintaining some level of continuity across the edit point, in practice, I find that J-cuts are used vastly more often. This makes sense if you think of it like this: First the audience hears something new, and just as they wonder what caused that new sound, you provide the answer with the new visual information.

edits are most often thought of as a tool for editing dialogue scenes, I believe there are very few situations where you shouldn't at least explore whether splitting your edits might smooth out otherwise choppy edits.

Matching Angleslor: black; letter-spacing: -0.05pt;">Another general rule that aids in hiding edits is to match shot types, CU to CU, MCU to MCU, and so on. One of the most important asg at one another), but even when cross-cutting between two dissimilar scenes the smoothest edits will be ones where the overall composition of adjacent shots is similar or reciprocal.

A Match Made in Heaven: These two shots are perfect reciprocals of each other. Notice the exact same

amount of "shoulder" in the foreground of each, and perfectly matched eyeline. The camera crew probably

measured to make sure the camera was exactly the same distance from each of them and the same lens was used.

Furthermore you should strive to match similar or complementary lens choices whenever possible. Cutting between two shots where one is shot with a wide-angle lens and the other is shot with a telephoto lens (even if they're both MCUs) will be far more jarring to the viewer than matching shots photographed with the same lens.

Mismatched Shots: While technically both shots are CUs, one is shot with a long; color: rgb(4, 4, 4); letter-spacing: -0.05pt;">lens and looser framing

and the other with a wide-angle lens and very tight framing. One is also dirty

meaning that part of the other

player is visible in the foreground. Cutting from one to the other creates an

unnatural juxtaposition that

threatens to pull the viewer out of the story.

Similarly, if one shot has been filmed at a high angle, the ideal reciprocal shot should be shot from a corresponding low angle. This is most obvious when the lens angle is motivated by the physical blocking of the actors (so the lehe use of low or high angles is done for subtle subjective reaype:section-break" />

Don't Jump!: No jump cut is required here, since you've got two perfectly matching angles, one very low

angle, and one very high angle. The movement of character's arm gives a perfect cut point between them.

In addition to matching similar angles, it's also important to match moving shots to moving shots and static shots to static shots. If you need to cut from a pan to a lock-off, be sure to wait until the pan comes to its natural resting point, then cut to the static shot.

The 180° Rule

This is perhaps the most notorious filmmaking rule, and it's something

that needs to be adhered to while shooting, but as an editor, you are often forced to try to fix or work around mistakes made when your production team failed to observe it.

The basic rule is that if people were looking left-to-right in the real space where the scene was shot, they ought to still be looking left-to-right in all of the shots when you edit them together. This might seem painfully obviies of two-dimensional images, it's pretty easy to get yourself turned around, and suddenly one of your actors is looking the wrong direction. While each individual shot might look fine, when you cut them together, that one shot won't cut properly with the shots around it. Sometimes the error is subtle and sometimes it's egregious.

The reason this is called the 180° rule is because you can move the camera angle away from a subject's eyeline by 10 degrees, 90 degrees, even 170 degrees, but if you move it beyond 180 degrees, suddenly the screen direction in the resulting shot will be reversed. The boundary can be easily assessed by imagining a straight line between the eyelines of the two main subjects.

Don't Cross the Line!: In the diagram above, you can see that the blue man is on

the right side of the screen facing left in camera angles

1, 3 and 4, but in angle 2, he's on the left side of the frame, facing right. If you were

to edit this shot into a sequence using the other three

shots, he would appear to be looking offscreen away from the red woman.

While this might seem simple, it quickly gets far more complicated when you have more than two people in a scene, or the people are moving around, or the camera is moving, or any combination of all these things. And God forbid if one of the shots is being filmed through a mirror! Even the most seasoned production crew can quickly get themselves very confused and accidentally move the camera to the wrong side of the line for part of a scene. And then, of course, it becomes your problem.

There are only a few ways to solve screen directionhich will reverse the perspective.

A Safe Flop: Nothing in this shot gives away that it has been flopped.

However, this won't work so well if there's any text or a clock in the frame. Often just the relative position of the walls of the room can make a flop look worse than the original. Imagine a jail scene where suddenly one shot shows the felon outside of the bars!

Look Both Ways: While at first this might seem like a safe shot to flop, there's a

dead giveaway...unless

the scene was suddenly transported from Los Angeles to London.

Fixing Screen Direction Errors Editorially

If you have a different shot where there is no discernable screen

The only other practical solution to working around such screen direction errors is to find a shot where the lens moves across the line while the camera is rolling. Then, from that point forward you can use the footage shot from the other side. But again, you've got to stay there unless you have another shot where the camera crosses back tana, sans-serif; color: black;">Often you have no choice but to omit the bad shot, or in the worst-case scenario where the shot is absolutely essential and you can't cheat your way around the line, you just have to live with it. Chances are, most audiences won't immediately recognize what's wrong, but I can promise you that's exactly one of those moments where suddenly everyone in the theater is unconsciously shifting in their seats, looking down and realizing their out of popcorn. And you know what that means: they're out of the story too.

Mastering these concepts and rules will help you avoid common mistakes and quickly solve potential problems that frequently occur in the editing room. There are plenty more rules and guidelines that can improve your editing, though like all languages, this one is constantly evolving: Idioms get introduced, overused ideas become clichŽd and fall out of fashion, and smart and innovative storytellers will continue to invent new ways to communicate, and those will get copied and repeated and eventually will work their way into the mainstream.

The one rule that supercedes all the others is that if it works, it's right. And if it doesn't work, you need to go back to the editing room. If your test audiences (i.e. your wife and kids) don't understand what you're trying to communicate, try a different approach. Check that you're providing the answers to the six questions, and not dwelling too long on one or another. Storytelling is an ancient art, and one that when done right can stir our very souls. After all, that's why you got involved with this crazy medium to begin with, isn't it?

Michael Wohl is an award-winning filmmaker, instructor at UCLA, author of eight books on editing and storytelling using Final Cut Studio, and was one of the original designers of Final Cut Pro.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

Mise-en-scène

The arrangement of everything that appears in the framing – actors, lighting, décor, props, costume – is called mise-en-scène, a French term that means “placing on stage.” The frame and camerawork are also considered part of the mise-en-scène of a movie. In cinema, placing on the stage really means placing on the screen, and the director is in charge of deciding what goes where, when, and how.David A. Cook, in his book A History of Narrative Film, points out how a mise-en-scène is formed by all the elements that appear “within the shot itself, as opposed to the effects created by cutting.” In other words, if it’s on the screen and if it’s a physical object recorded by the camera, then it’s part of the mise-en-scène.

Academically Speaking

Don’t be confused. Mise-en-scène isn’t a production term. Directors don’t walk around saying “Let’s change the mise-en-scène today.” Not at all.

From the craftsmen who build bookcases to the cinematographer who chooses where the lights will go, the mise-en-scène is the result of the collaboration of many professionals. Thus in the production environment, the director is more specific with his requests and orders. Is he talking to the prop master, the set designer, the actors, the make-up artists? All of them are part of different departments. But all of them, in the end, have influence in the mise-en-scène.

In the academic realm, the term mise-en-scène is often used when the overall look and feel of a movie is under discussion. Students taking Film Analysis courses should be quite familiar with the term.

Even though many professionals are involved in its creation, the director is the one who oversees the entire mise-en-scène and all of its elements. Not just that, but during the early stages of pre-production, the director or his AD sits down with set designers, prop masters, location managers, costume designers, and scenic artists to determine the look and feel intended.

yle="font-size: 16px; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-weight: 300; line-height: 1.625;">In some instances, the mise-en- scène is designed to evoke emotions that permeate the whole movie. For example in the German expressionist film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), distorted shapes and claustrophobic scenery are implemented to disturb the audience and enhance the horror.

Mike Nichols’The Graduate (1967) has been praised by its amazing, c 16px; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-weight: 300; line-height: 1.625; font-style: italic; box-sizing: border-box;">The Graduate but also from other pictures.

Set Design

The set design refers to the decor of the the set, or how it’s dressed, comprising mainly of the furniture, props, and the set itself. Instead of just placing objects here and there, the director must be savvy to fathom how these elements may bear significance in a deeper level, while also emphasizing themes, creating meanings, and provoking thoughts.

To illustrate: an early scene from The Graduate (1967) opens with a close-up of Benjamin Braddock (Dustin Hoffman) alone on his bed. Behind him is a fish tank, which symbolically represents Ben’s entrapment in a life that he doesn’t want. Later in the movie, Ben finds himself at the bottom of a swimming pool, thus further elaborating on that concept.

The Production Designer is the professional responsible for building and dressing the set. She works with the Art Director, the Set Designer, and the Prop Master to create and add these physical elements to the filmic space. The Production Designer reports to the Director, and together they conceptualize the look of the film well before cameras start rolling.

In Rear Window (1954), an enlarged photograph placed in the living room offers exposition on the accident that made L.B. Jeffries (James Stewart) handicap:

Unarguably one of the film elements that has the greatest power to evoke emotions, lighting must be manipulated by the director to accommodate his or her desires for the movie. In broad terms, the two types of lighting approaches are: low-key lighting and high-key lighting.

High-key lighting is often seen in romantic comedies and musicals, encompassing an even lighting pattern and avoiding dark areas in the frame. Everything looks bright with little to no shadow at all. High-key lighting has little dramatic effect itself.

Low-key is often seen in horror movies and thrillers, comprising of a lighting pattern that has both bright and dark areas in the frame. The chiaroscuro (Italian: bright-dark) technique, long used by painters, is characterized by strong contrast, often employed to unnerve the audience.

Note that this terminology is counter-intuitive as low-key lighting is high contrast and high-key lighting is low contrast.

Costume

The obvious purpose of costuming is to dress an actor according to his character. Lawyers wear suits, nurses wear scrubs, and a drifter could wear worn out shoes, ragged shirt, and baggy pants.

But, more than that, costuming can also be used to establish someone’s hierarchic level. Regimentals, for instance, bear the status of the person who wears it. And even the color may distinguish an enemy from a friend. In The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), a comic situation arises when Blondie (Clint Eastwood) heads toward the enemy cavalry that was covered in dust. When the enemy general dusts off his sleeve, his apparently gray uniform turns blue, making it obvious that our beloved protagonist was going into the shark’s mouth.

Costuming may also be used to emphasize a theme. In the first scene at the Taft Hotel in The Graduate, Mrs. Robinson wears a fur coat that makes her look like a predator hunting for her prey. Her coat bears a pattern that resembles the fur of a cheetah. Or could it be a cougar?

Location

In (1985), on the day after rejecting Rachel’s (Kelly McGillis) seduction, John Book (Harrison Ford) explains to her why nothing could have happened between them the night before. Quite conveniently, the confrontation takes place in a barn, while Rachel is collecting eggs. The location emphasizes Rachel’s responsibilities as a woman. If they had made love and Rachel gotten pregnant, she would have to carry the baby and eventually give birth. Also, during the conversation, John stands outside the barn, thus being physically separated from Rachel by the barn’s door. In this case, the door functions as a metaphor of the social and cultural barriers that keeps them a part.

final confrontation in The Graduate takes place in a church. Ben tries to prevent Elaine (Katherine Ross) from getting married, but he arrives too late. Nonetheless, when Elaine sees him, she sprints to him, and they run away. When the couple is cornered by infuriated parents and relatives, Ben starts swinging a cross to avoid them. As they exit, Ben uses the cross to hold the church’s doors shut.

The prop (cross) and location (church) offer a comment on religious institutions, perhaps implying that Elaine’s parents are trapped by traditional believes and practices.

For the Future Directors, With Love

As you know, the director on a set has final word on all the creative elements, which means many of your crew members will stop you and ask for approval on this or that: Is the blond wig okay? Can we shoot on top of the building? Can we place the sofa under the window? Where’s is the restroom?

Some of these questions may or may not be the questions you are willing to answer at the time, but remember: everyone is just doing their job. The important thing is to not get overwhelmed and snap at your crew. They are all there for you, working on your film.

If you are on an well-oiled set, your Assistant Director (AD) will be the last barrier before people get to you. He or she will try to answer as many questions for you as they can. And if your AD doesn’t know the answer, at least he or she will be able to prioritize and let you know what needs immediate attention.

Filed Under: Directing

Tagged With: Amadeus, Directing, German Expressionism, Mise-En-Scene, Production Designer, Rear Window, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), The Graduate

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  导演

[Editing](https://blog.frame.io/category/post-production/editing/), [Workflow](https://blog.frame.io/category/workflow/) 10 MIN READ

July 15, 2019

Edit First, Shoot Later: A Real-World Look at Editing Animation

Gregory Lewis

When I tell fellow post-production professionals that I edit animation, the most common question I get is, “So, do they just give you handles on everything?” It’s an understandable question for anyone working in the live-action world, but it’s a sign that the role of animation editors isn’t well understood.

Ken Schretzmann, editor of Toy Story 3 and Cars (among many other animated features), once described it this way: “In live-action, you shoot first and edit later. In animation, you edit first and shoot later.” And he’s absolutely right. Compared to live-action editing, animation editing is upside down.

Before the first frame is even drawn, animation editors are already deeply immersed in the process of cutting their stories. Of course, live-action editors often go to work before shooting begins, but the art of animation editing is unique in its own right.

In this article, we’ll explore the three main stages of editing animation, and see why animation workflows are so unique in the film and television industry.

Radio play

Editorial of an animated production generally begins after the voice actors record the script. In some cases, each actor records their lines individually, but there are also “cast records” where all the voice actors are in the studio together.

In my experience, cast records produce the best results. Being in the same room lets lead actors play off of each other’s energy and improvise in ways that aren’t possible when they’re alone in a soundproof room. It is sometimes a challenge to get high-demand talent together in the same room, especially if the production has a fast-paced schedule, but it can produce some of the most memorable performances and relationships in animation.

After all the audio is recorded, I start by editing the radio play, an all-audio version of the script. It consists mostly of the dialogue with a few key sound effects and music. And in order to get an accurate runtime, non-dialogue actions are also slugged in.

Beyond simply relying on instinct and experience to estimate how long an action should take, it’s often necessary for animation editors to act out the scenes of the story. For example, my colleagues and I have choreographed fights, vocalized tire screeching sounds, and generally behaved like kids in the pursuit of accurate timing. It’s a necessary task that adds quite a bit of fun to the process.

But the real work comes with crafting actor performances. This is an essential function for any editor, of course, but in the world of animation an editor’s options are next level. Without the constraints of continuity and jump cuts, anything and everything that’s been recorded is fair game. Seldom do animation editors choose the “best take” in its entirety. We comb through all recorded material in search of the best sentence, word, or grunt, all the way down to a single breath, in order to piece a line together.

The radio play serves as the basis for the storyboard team’s subsequent work, which is why I consider it one of the most important foundational steps to launching an animated production. It’s the point in the process where you’re working with story, performance, and timing in their raw forms and can really evaluate the best deliveries from the actor(s).

It’s also the easiest place to make story or plot changes, in that anything can be rewritten and recorded—before the animation has started. The further an animated show gets into the production process, the more changes ripple down into other departments.

When preparing a radio play for storyboarding, it’s really important for the editor to hone the timing as closely as possible. Removing excess content helps prevent the storyboard artists from wasting time creating drawings or elements that will never make it to the final cut. Cutting an extra second from the radio play can save subsequent teams hours of unnecessary work.

Animatic

Of all the stages of production, animatics come with the largest variety of names. Storyboards, story reels, boardomatics, and leica reels are all synonyms for what I’ll just refer to as an animatic.

The animatic is essentially the rough cut of the story that the animation will be based on. Camera blocking, character action, and design are all explored in these rough drawings. It’s a period of boundless creativity where nearly every visual element of an animated production is experimented with and ultimately decided on by the team.

In general, storyboard artists create the drawings with the director, typically using a program called Storyboard Pro. This program is a favorite in animation circles, as it allows artists to roughly time out action as they draw new storyboard panels.

>

Those images are then delivered to editorial as JPEGs with an XML file that lets me start my edit with the storyboard artist’s timing already in place. On average, I expect to receive about 2000 separate JPEGs per ten minutes of content. Below you can see an image of a timeline encompassing one minute of a standard animatic.

;">Timing and pacing are everything when editing an animatic. You’re not just editing in and out points of a shot, but also determining the flow of action in between.

Because animatics are simply a guide for animators to begin their work, aesthetics are less important. The goal is to always create an animatic that, in addition to providing a roadmap for the animators, also enables flexibility in post-production. To ensure this, here are a few rules I always follow:

  • Have every line of dialogue delivered on screen. Even if I plan on using L cuts or overlapping edits, I generally save those for post-production, because if you build them into the cut prior to animation and decide to adjust them later, you might find that you don’t have the necessary frames. The same goes for dissolves, wipes, or post effects like camera push-ins.
  • Edit at a slower pace than seems natural. Animatics are simple. Your eye quickly absorbs all the content on screen. But as those scenes move through the animation process you’ll notice each extra layer of detail appears to speed up the pace of your edit. To compensate for this, I like to leave just a little extra time on everything, knowing I can cinch things up in post-production. Generally speaking, I try to leave four frames at the head and tail of any shot with dialogue, and never less than two seconds for an establishing shot.
  • Rely on SFX and music as much as visuals for story and timing. Sound effects and music can reinforce actions or feelings in a storyboard and even help fill in detail. Animation editor Judith Allen highlighted this unique process in animation by pointing out, “In live-action filming, every action on set is accompanied by the corresponding sound. Often these are replaced or enhanced, but the sound is there and used within the rhythm of the cut whether consciously or unconsciously.”

With a locked animatic and all designs complete, animation begins. There are many interim stages between animatic and final animation, but the editor’s involvement may vary.

Post-production

After each shot is animated and delivered to editorial, post-production kicks off. Many of these steps mirror that of traditional live-action with picture locking, scoring, and even color correction, but there are some animation-specific twists.

Editing Animated Footage

On every project, I’ve edited there is at least five percent more footage that’s fully animated beyond the intended run time. The extra footage provides the flexibility to further refine the content through editing. Just as you’d expect in any editorial process, unnecessary shots and lines of dialogue may be cut. And I can go back to all those edits I may have kept a little looser in the animatic phase to perfect the pacing of every scene. But where animation editing truly departs from live-action is the editing within a shot.

Animated footage is actually more malleable than you might expect. The basic concept of animation you have to understand to unlock this potential is what I’ll refer to as animating on 1s, 2s, and 3s. Those numbers refer to the frame rate at which the action moves. A character that’s animated on 1s means that there is a distinct drawing (or CG animated frame) for every frame of their action. On 2s, there’s one drawing that’s held for two frames; on 3s, each drawing is held for three frames. All end up looking acceptable to viewers, so the editor can shift between them for stylistic effect. For example:

A workflow that video teams love - finally

EXPLORE FRAME.IO

  • Larly, you can even pull every other frame of an action animated on 1s to speed up the action.
  • Conversely, taking an action animated on 1s and duplicating every frame makes the action slower without the interpolated motion look of a slow-motion filter.
  • There’s also a way to create eases and acceleration. Key-framed animation tends to move linearly, meaning a constant rate of motion between the start and end position. This type of movement isn’t always natural, though. Pretend you’re waving goodbye to someone. Your arm doesn’t move linearly throughout the action. It gradually speeds up, moves faster in the middle of the motion, and then eases into rest momentarily before beginning the sequence again.

By applying this concept to animation, an editor can introduce more natural movements to a shot that’s already been animated. An action animated on 2s can be edited to 1s in the middle of an action, to imitate the ramp-up. An action edited on 1s can be slowed down to 2s at the beginning and end to give the illusion of easing from a start or to a stop.

All of these techniques are extremely helpful when creating a consistent rhythm for actions moving across multiple shots. The reality is that animators often work on a single shot at a time. A car chase could be animated by as many people as there are shots in the scene. By using these techniques, the editor can create a flow and rhythm that might not have been in the original animated frames.p: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em;">In retakes, we modify the animation for any number of reasons. Revising character animation, fixing technical errors, and adding new lines of dialogue can all occur at this stage. Despite going through a thorough animatic process, it’s hard to know what you have until you see it all together. Very rarely are the shots you see in an animated film or television show the first pass the editor gets.

That’s why I find it helpful to keep every version of a shot on my timeline until after it’s been finaled. Keeping track of countless iterations of each shot requires obsessive detail, but actually speeds up my workflow. I can easily compare versions of shots to see exactly what’s changed or improved. If there are better parts in different versions, I can combine them to create the best version. Here’s an example of what one of my timelines might look like throughout the retakes process:

A unique role

It takes hundreds of specialized artists and technicians tnto a very focused, hyper-specific portion of a production.

Editors who work in animation occupy a unique role, however. The editor is one of the few individuals whose job it is to consider every element within the context of the complete episode or movie, to observe how all the pieces fit together, and to use them to create the best possible final product.

And that’s the big difference between animation and live-action editors. We don’t work in a separate “editorial department” of the production. We’re part of the core team responsible for the story months or years before production even begins.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

WAV:wav是一种无损的音频文件格式,WAV符合 PIFF(Resource Interchange File Format)规范。所有的WAV都有一个文件头,这个文件头音频流的编码参数。WAV对音频流的编码没有硬性规定,除了PCM之外,还有几乎所有支持ACM规范的编码都可以为WAV的音频流进行编码。


PCM:PCM(Pulse Code Modulation----脉码调制录音)。所谓PCM录音就是将声音等模拟信号变成符号化的脉冲列,再予以记录。PCM信号是由[1]、[0]等符号构成的数字信号,而未经过任何编码和压缩处理。与模拟信号比,它不易受传送系统的杂波及失真的影响。动态范围宽,可得到音质相当好的影响效果。

简单来说:wav是一种无损的音频文件格式,pcm是没有压缩的编码方式。

WAV和PCM的关系

WAV可以使用多种音频编码来压缩其音频流,不过我们常见的都是音频流被PCM编码处理的WAV,但这不表示WAV只能使用PCM编码,MP3编码同样也可以运用在WAV中,和AVI一样,只要安装好了相应的Decode,就可以欣赏这些WAV了。在Windows平台下,基于PCM编码的WAV是被支持得最好的音频格式,所有音频软件都能完美支持,由于本身可以达到较高的音质的要求,因此,WAV也是音乐编辑创作的首选格式,适合保存音乐素材。因此,基于PCM编码的WAV被作为了一种中介的格式,常常使用在其他编码的相互转换之中,例如MP3转换成WMA。

简单来说:pcm是无损wav文件中音频数据的一种编码方式,但wav还可以用其它方式编码。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

SHOT SIZES: Telling What They See

Published by Gabe Moura, on June 3, 2014

What really differentiates movies from plays is the way filmmakers manipulate the audience’s field of view. In theater, the audience is in a “wide shot,” always looking at the entire stage and all the actors on it. They are free to look wherever they want. In cinema, however, the filmmaker directs what the public sees and how. While a long shot can show a vast vista of Mount Everest, an extreme close-up can show the silent despair of a child learning that his mother has passed away. These different shots make up the fabric of visual storytelling. Read on:

Wide/Long Shot


Long shots are used to emphasize a sweeping location around the subject.

Long shot and wide shot are interchangeable terms.

This frame from Gone with the Wind (1939) emphasizes the tragedy of the Civil War and its death toll. Can you find Scarlet O’Hara in the picture?

Wide shots are more easily captured with wide-angle lens*.

For the Sake of Clarity

Long shots and establishing shots (which we will go ever next) can sometimes be similar in nature. The main difference between the two is that establishing shots will be wide enough to show all the characters and objects necessary for the drama, while a wide shot will be wider than that, focusing more on the environment. Compare the frame from Gone With The Wind above to the frame from Little Miss Sunshine below, and try to guess how far the camera is from the action.

Establishing Shot and Master Shot

An establishing shot and a master shot are not the same per se. But they were combined under the same subheading because the framing and composition are usually the same for both of them.

le="font-size: 16px; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-weight: 300; line-height: 1.625;">An establishing shot introduces a new location – a church, a city street, a rooftop, a hospital room – from a vantage point that allows the audience to see all the relevant characters in the filmic space. A master shot would probably be recorded from the same position, with the same lens, also showing all the characters. The difference is the duration. A master shot records the entire action, a complete run-through from that same camera position. This way if a tighter shot is forgotten or messed up during coverage, the director knows her editor will have enough material to show the scene in its entirety by cutting back to the master shot. In most movies, an establishing shot will last a few seconds before the editor cuts to medium shots and close-ups. However, if for someone reason the director decides that the cuts are not good enough, he may use the master shot of a scene to show the action unfold, in which case there would few to no cuts in that scene, which can a be a pleasant style.

EDITING CONNECTION: Why Would a Director Opt to No Cuts?

I can already hear some of you asking that question. There are several purposes why that may be the case. For starters, a scene without cuts or edits keeps the viewing distraction-free, which can be great for tense scenes.

Have you seen Hitchcocks’ Rope. That film is in my opinion one of Hitchcock’s finest pieces. In Rope, there are two obvious cuts throughout the film. The other cuts are hidden in smooth transitions. This technique does wonders for the most suspenseful scenes in the movie by locking the audience to specific camera setups, which is not what we as movie-watchers are used to.

Another reason for that choice is budget constraints. If planned ahead of time, fewer cuts could translate to fewer camera setups, which could translate to fewer days of principal photography, which is amazing for the budget.

Sling Blade (1996, Billy Bob Thornton) comes to mind. This film, which was reportedly shot for 1 million dollars ( pocket change for Hollywood standards), uses a lot of lengthy master shots to show the action of a scene. And if you think that fewer shots means a poor movie, think again. Sling Blade went on to gross almost 25 million dollars and earn an Oscar f0r Thornton’s screenplay.

To a sense, master shots are usually part of cinematography terminology because they should be standard practice for every new scene. Establishing shots, in the other hand, refer more to the editing phase of the movie, when the editor selects one quick angle to reveal the location.

Also, note that an establishing shot doesn’t necessarily mean that we see the character’s full body. Basically, the establishing shot displays the elements needed for the scene to function.

A Stroll Down Memory Lane

During the first years of cinema, the most common type of shot was the long shot. Back in the 19th century, when cinema was still young, there were no filmmakers; there were only camera operators. These operators were interested in landscapes and locations because that’s what the audience wanted – to be transported elsewhere and see something new. The camera (then called the cinamatographe) was traveling to distant countries and capturing exotic images around the globe. Close-ups were rare.

When impresarios (arguably the first filmmakers) decided to use the cinematographe to record scripted stories, establishing shots became common. Establishing shots were preferred because the camera would record scenes with a similar vantage point as theater audiences have in plays. In those times, the film grammar, which incorporates, among other things, editing and shot variety, hadn’t been developed yet.

It wasn’t until D. W. Griffith came along that medium shots, close-ups, and insert shots were understood and used effectively. D. W. Griffith changed the game because his films abound with shot variety, as he knew the different purposes of the shot sizes.

Full Shot (FS)

A full shA full shot distances the character from the viewer both physically and psychologically. They carry less emotional weight, and therefore they are not the best choice during emotional scenes.

Whenever the director wants to convey someone’s anger, fear, or joy, close-ups are way more effective. A full shot would be more appropriate during a character’s entrance or a foot pursuit, for instance.

Medium Shot (MS)

Medium shots are the most common types of shots in the movies. Showing most of the subject’s body, medium shots are halfway between long shots and close-ups; however, authors disagree on the definition. While some writers say that the medium shot shows the character fa closeup. Also, composition guidelines suggest that frame lines shouldn’t cut the actors on the joints, so as long as operators avoid knees, waists, elbows, etc., the framing shouldn’t be a problem. In other words, just go a little higher or lower with the framing to avoid the joints.

The medium shot also includes two other famous shot types: The two-shot, with two actors facing the same screen direction, and the over-the-shoulder shot, showing a conversation in which the actors sit or stand across from each other:

To record medium shots, a normal lens* should be enough. Ad: 24px; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-weight: 400; line-height: 1.2;">Close-Up (CU)

In close-up shots, the subject occupies most of the frame, allowing very little observation on the environment. Close-ups are much more dramatic than long or medium shots. They are preferred when emphasizing someone’s emotion:

Extreme Close-Up (ECU)

Often labeled as a detail shot, extreme close-ups do exactly that: show a small detail that would otherwise be missed in a winder shot.

For close-ups and extreme close-ups, telephoto lens* are more appropriate.

Insert Shots

Insert shots don’t focus on people. They are utilized to emphasize a relevant object, such as a letter, an envelope with money, or a gun that would otherwise be lost in the grand mise-en-scène. Insert shots are tight shots in which objects fill most of the frame. Even if inserts don’t reveal anything new, they are still welcome during the editing phase, as they smooth transitions between shots, often serving as a neutral shot that allows a breach of the 180 degree rule.

Reaction Shots

Simply put, reaction shots are a cutaway – usually a close-up – of an actor reacting to the main scene, like a conversation or an event, though it can be pretty much anything.The reaction may be conveyed by a sneer, furrowed browns, a grin, or any other gesture that conveys an emotion.

The logic of the reaction shot is that the emot26px; padding: 0px;">

On Purpose

Besides the obvious purpose of showing different elements of the mise-en-scèneCinematographers should know by heart how the relationship between focal length (types of lenses) and camera-subject distance affects framing, and thus creates the different shot sizes. A true filmmaker, aside from understanding these basic technical concepts, must also comprehend the emotion, purpose, and meaning behind each type of shot.

* Further Reading: If you are confused by all the different types of lenses (i.e. wide-angle, telephoto, etc.) I mentioned on this page, then read our article about focal length here for further clarification. If questions persist, please don’t hesitate to contact me.

Filed Under: Cinematography

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

![](resources/38107948EFDA89E1555765199926969D)

将所有技术设备和所有工作人员带到指定的拍摄地点很容易成为一个具有挑战性的情况,尤其是在几乎没有任何道路通行的偏远地区拍摄时。这正是DIT Stefan Weßling在制作电视剧《Capelli Code》时所经历的,当时他不得不将他的设备安装到瑞士阿尔卑斯山的一个地方,而且只有在雪地上骑行45分钟才能到达。

在这个项目中,Stefan负责几个剧组的素材。他使用Silverstack Offload Manager和Silverstack Lab进行卡的拷贝和每天代理文件的生成。在接下来的采访中,他分享了对这部作品的一些见解,并解释了他如何能够贡献自己的知识,使工作流程更加高效。

嗨 Stefan,很高兴见到你!首先,感谢您与我们分享您对近期作品的见解。你能先介绍一下你自己和你的工作吗?

嗨,大家好!我没有一早就进入电影行业。毕业后,我先在当地储蓄银行接受了银行推销员的培训。 2013年,我决定尝试一下,试一试,让我的电影爱好成为一份工作。

我认为每一个加入电影行业的人都希望成为演员,导演或摄影指导。

就我而言,摄影指导是我的目标,因为我对如何捕捉特定的情感或氛围感兴趣。然而,经过几次培训和拍摄学生电影作品后,我发现检查技术资料并帮助团队执行适当的工作流程实际上成为了我的目标 - 这就是我最终成为DIT和数据技术人员的方式。

我认为作为一名数据技术人员,你的角色是“管家”和电脑管理员之间的混合体 - 你的工作就是防止并在最坏的情况下解决问题,这样艺术家就可以专注于创造性的想法,让他们感觉很良好,有安全保障。

团队成员时不时地意识到这辆光线黑暗的面包车里工作的人是多么重要,并以一种有意义的方式说“谢谢” - 这是一个很酷的奖励。

ont>

斯蒂芬在他的办公桌前工作

你经常参与什么样的项目?

我经常为电视剧进行数据管理。目前,我正在为以巴伐利亚研究人员的为题材的电影《犯罪现场》做准备。

今年6月,以第二次世界大战的剧情片《Das Geheimnis vom Altaussee》将在慕尼黑首映——这是一个典型的工作模式,我在片场全力配合支持摄影指导Carsten Thiele的工作。

我们用松下Varicam和EVA摄影机拍摄了4K的素材,这让我的硬件达到了极限挑战,因为我严重低估了解码AVC-Intra的需求。

您最近在一个项目中使用了Silverstack Lab和Offload Manager。你能给我们讲讲这个项目吗?团队是如何走到一起的,你扮演了什么角色?

我在独立剧集《CAPELLI CODE》中担任的DIT一职,这是一部发生在柏林和瑞士的人质题材惊悚片。

这个故事真的很惊悚,有很高的制作价值。我希望能有第二季,因为我想知道故事的结局。

今年3月,我们在雷克金根基地附近进行了最后B组的拍摄,而A组在距此约一小时车程的维斯肖酒店进行了为期两天的拍摄。你只能通过雪地车到达那里,这需要另外45分钟,并且一次最多可以携带5个人。

我们能得到的房间也非常有限,所以我们决定留在B组,为第二摄影助理准备一个拷贝工作站。

您可以想象,特别是一个独立的拍摄没有为B组的提供完整的Silverstack Lab许可证。此外,当操作员没有很好地理解和熟悉工具时,完全成熟的工具的复杂性可能导致与安全工作理念相反的结果。这就是为什么我们选择了一个简单的解决方案。

我很快就习惯了Offload Manager的操作,因为它很便宜,而且在前120天的拍摄中,没有任何问题。

此外,我之前还对一个demo版本进行了一些测试,去年我帮助制片方改进了拷贝工作流程。

如上述,我知道Offload Manager在哪些方面与Silverstack不同,不同情况下我可以快速准备好软件进行工作。

在这个项目中使用了哪些摄像机?

A机是Amira, B机是Alexa Mini。有很多天,增加了额外的Amira和RedGemini摄影机。为了应对大量VFX/抠像镜头,Mini获得了原始RAW的录制许可。我很惊讶Silverstack在一台22英寸的iMac上处理ARRI RAW的流畅程度。

使用Silverstack Lab和 Offload Manager的决定是如何做出的?应用程序的使用是否有特定的要求?

首先软件需要使用起来方便,在匆忙的时候,因为第二摄影助理必须照顾分布在两层楼的3台摄影机。我觉得这要求已经够高了。由于Silverstack是众所周知的可靠工具,所以即使在生产办公室中,你也不用考虑过多。当然,我很欣赏Silverstack的外观和感觉,这对DIT来说是一个好处。

你能简单描述一下你的现场工作流程吗?您在工作的哪些方面使用了Silverstack Lab以及Offload Manager?

主要是通过iMac运行Silverstack Lab,我通常用这台电脑拷贝数据到LTO磁带和一个巨大的LaCie牌雷电3阵列。在串联拷贝中,使用第二个LaCie阵列通过以太网进行了第二次拷贝,该RAID连接在一个Win10 达芬奇工作站上,我们使用该工作站进行了粗剪,并为剪辑设置了达芬奇项目(编者注:Blackmagic Design DaVinci Resolve)。串联拷贝对于这个戏来说是一个非常好的特点,因为它没有妨碍主拷贝,我可以在网络驱动器上以80mb /s速度复制的同时运行Silverstack Lab ,以适当的性能执行QC画面检查。

串联拷贝是Silverstack Lab的一个重要特点。大多数德国的摄制组都将2.5英寸的硬盘作为交接磁盘。经常浏览Pomfort博客的人应该都知道这些设备的大问题——串联拷贝保证你快速做完主要的备份的同时进行另外的拷贝,而Sx卡S或CFast可以快速交付给现场进行拍摄。

使用这个工作流程我就不用像以前一样为买一堆SSD而和制片方费劲。我让他们知道,最终他们会省下一笔钱,而且我不会在拍摄结束几小时后拿素材走人。

仍在工作中

现场的协作是怎样的,尤其是在多个剧组之间?

在有些情况下,我希望每一个组都可以有独立的备份方案,但最后我不得不在一个靠近现场的地方处理来自所有剧组(最多三个剧组)的素材。由于现场评调色在德国电影拍摄中并不常见,所以颜色协作并不是一个问题。在最后几周的拍摄中,保证内容和灯光的一致成为了主要的工作。我给导演助理提供了一台安卓平板电脑,它配备了当时能买到的最大的内存的SD卡(512 GB),所以它几乎能装进多天的代理文件。

当其他剧组要求一个解决方案时,我决定通过Docker设置一个本地Copra4服务器。几个月前,科普特拉的家伙向我介绍了这个方案。现在,每个获得许可的团队成员都可以登录到运行在我的备用MacBook上的服务器,离线访问选定的素材或完整的素材。通常的代理解决方案是没有其他选择的,因为我们都负不起瑞士的网络漫游费。所以我把本地服务器接入了酒店WiFi,这个问题得到了妥善的解决,不用花钱购买平板电脑或LTE移动流量。

我喜欢Silverstack和Copra4之间的元数据接口。我们在几个月的时间里把拍摄场景分开来——这是一个很大的好处,我们可以很容易地在Copra4 iPad应用程序中设置智能文件夹,一眼就能看到我们将要拍摄的场景中已经拍摄的素材。

3月份,你们团队发布了tint/wb/asa的选项。这是一个完美的时刻。我们广泛地使用它,在所有需要灯光连戏的时候。

在这个拍摄过程中有没有特别具有挑战性的情况或设置?

我们有很多特殊素材需要我处理。我们有几个监控摄像头,内窥镜摄像头,头盔摄像头,显微镜摄像头,广播摄像头,这些都是需要单独处理。

有时这些设备的影像室需要实时回看的,我们必须找到一种方法,然后用高端军事设备从摄像机获取信号。再保证我的BMD-Micro转换器是否能连接。

最糟糕的例子是一个工业ip监控摄像头,由A组来控制拍摄,A组在周日拍摄时没有记录许可证。在进行任何配置尝试之前,必须使用特殊工具将摄像头设置为DHCP。这个工具只能在Windows操作系统上启动,并且是通过CD-ROM格式的。最后,我用我的UltraStudio 4K II录制了视频,这本来是给QC用的,但它是我能及时拿到的唯一一台能够录制60i 4K的设备。

我还负责后面拍摄的投影。在瑞士拍摄的很多镜头都没有使用角色——只有背景板。在柏林的工作室里,我们将演员、车辆和小场景放置在一个巨大的后投影影院屏幕前,该屏幕由4K DLP投影机照亮。我支持B机操作员Leo Kairat和B组灯光师Arne Weiss在数字终端营造这个视觉效果。例如,我们发现只有将Alexa设置为60°开角,并将投影机回放FPS设置为29,97帧(12位色深),才不会出现任何伪影。幸运的是找到50米的这些规格的HDMI电缆。

当你回想起这个项目,你最难忘的经历是什么?你最喜欢什么?

也许有一天我能鼓起勇气算出我每天在瑞士芝士火锅上花了多少钱。但不是今天。

感谢Stefan与我们分享他在这个令人兴奋的项目上的经验!

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

如何在对话场景中找到最好的摄影角度

当你头脑一片空白的时候

转载自https://wolfcrow.com/ 作者Sareesh Sudhakaran

我们都经历过忘记如何用镜头覆盖一场重要的对话戏或者一段动作戏时所处的巨大压力。

别担心!本指南包含三套镜头系统,你可以随身携带在手机上让这些镜头系统为你的得力帮手。

我拥有17年的拍摄制作经验,主要参与电影,短片,广告和纪录片的摄影工作。每当我脑子一片空白的时候,我就会回想起这本指南。而且它总是有效的!

让我们开始吧!

BBC镜头系统

英国广播公司BBC开发了一套培训视频制作人员的系统,这套系统的核心是如何快速用不同类型镜头覆盖拍摄场景。他们总结了五种镜头的方法,但我又增加了一个。所以,你需要共有六种镜头就可以覆盖不同类型的场景。

覆盖的目的是为了获得足够的镜头以供剪辑的时候有更多细节角度去讲故事。可事实上每次拍摄结束后人们才抱怨没有拍摄到足够的素材。

以下是我总结的六种镜头:

  1. 特写镜头
  2. 过肩镜头
  3. 动作镜头
  4. 广角镜头
  5. 其他角度镜头
  6. 插入镜头

为了读者更好的理解,我使用电影截图来说明,这是一部关于印度拉达克铁匠的纪录片,虽然是纪录片,但完成符合质量的拍摄并不是一件简单的事情。我采访了三个工匠,他们还在使用马上失传的技艺。而且当时,我只有一次机会拍摄到这些镜头:

1.特写镜头

2. 过肩镜头(OTS)

当时他们都背对着墙坐着,所以我没能得到一个合适的过肩镜头(OTS)。我不能站在他们身后,因为那会破坏他们的私人空间,这对纪录片来说是一个不利的情况。如果你也碰到这样狭窄空间怎么办?下图就是解决这个问题的方法:

edia hash="c1b22ae9361cbe2ae75671c734e3e="font-weight: bold;">3.动作镜头

这种镜头可以是近景或中景,但你需要用灵活的构图分离出动作。尽所能试着多角度拍摄动作镜头,就像下图所示用了两个角度拍摄同一动作。

<" />

更多动作镜头:

e="image/jpeg" />

动作,但是他们所做的一切都可以反映他们自己在那个时刻的思想和情感。

/div>

下面这个镜头展示了这个人,以及他的这个动作和它们周围的环境。在保持有意义有美感的前提下拍摄一个尽可能广角度的镜头。

5. 插入镜头

我还发现拍摄中需要一些切出或者叫插入镜头,这样你可在对话或访谈中插入这些镜头。这些镜头会丰富和增加故事的深度和细节。7e1b" type="image/jpeg" />

6.其他角度镜头

有时拍摄时退后一步,就可能以一种完全不同的方式展现相同的场景。一个广角镜头会给你一个独特的视角:一个完全不同的角度。确保这个镜头与另一个镜头至少有90度夹角,或者确保两个镜头在不同的位置拍摄。

/div>

案例中这个镜头的目的是提供了另一个视角:将老铁匠放到了一个独特的角度去展现他们,这样增加了这个角色的深度和更多的细节。

从这个案例得到启发吧!

下一个拍摄公式是什么呢?

以下是这五种镜头:

  1. 主镜头(广角镜头,每个人都在构图里)
  2. 中景镜头(一个或多个人在构图里)
  3. 特写镜头
  4. 过肩镜头
  5. 插入镜头

提示:拍摄时尽量保证以上所列的这些镜头都有。最重要的镜头(可能是最困难和花费经历最多的,时间往往消耗到灯光布置,设计走位和执行)优先拍摄完成。通常,这个镜头就是主镜头。

1. 主镜头或叫广角镜头

一个镜头如果覆盖了所有的动作,那么就被称为一个主镜头,否则只是个广角镜头。在剪辑的时候你可以将主镜头分开在不同的地方使用,但一场戏你至少得保证有一个展现全部动作的镜头。好莱坞高成本电影可以不光拍摄一个角度的主镜头,还可以多个角度拍摄主镜头,独立电影人则负担不起只能选择一个角度拍摄主镜头。

如果你想拍好主镜头,需要问问自己:哪里是最好的位置和角度,是否可以看清楚所有的动作,并且镜头是否可以覆盖这些动作?

以下是电影《宿醉》中的例子,导演是托德·菲利普斯(Todd Phillips),这是迈克·泰森(Mike Tyson)主演

的一场戏,这个镜头不一定就是主镜头,但它是一个广角镜头。

下图是这场戏另一个角度的主镜头(镜头可以按任意顺序剪辑):

2. 中景镜头

一旦主镜头完成,就开始拍摄中景镜头。中景可以是两个人(“two -shot”)或者三个人(“three -shot”),或h="baf17bc2b3a9b4085270f7f915a9cc18" type="image/jpeg" />

演员们在中景又将重复一遍完整的表演。不在画面构图中的人则会单独拍摄,但是要和其感。

当然,中景镜头之外可能需要反打镜头(称为“reverse shot”),让观众看到角色在跟谁说话:

3.特写镜头

特写镜头是用来排除干扰信息的,通过特写镜头观众会只关注角色本身说的内容。虽然不是必须拍摄这些特写镜头,但有些导演坚持这么做,下图是迈克泰森的特写镜头:

头(也称为“切出镜头”),就和BBC镜头系统一样。有时你需要关于细节的信息或只需要一些切出镜头使跳切变得流畅。在这个场景里没有插入镜头,但第二个镜头是一个切出镜头:

你需要多次重复以上系统提到的准则,并且多去练习拍摄素材。一个简单的典型双人对话可以包含7到10个镜头。这样的好处是导演得到了更多剪辑的可能性。通常一个镜头不可能营那时候我决定使用好莱坞镜头系统来覆盖这个场景:

>

这个场景花了我一整天的时间来拍摄。这是我拍摄的第一部电影《不可能的谋杀》。

长镜头系统

这是我最喜欢的拍摄方式,也是最难拍摄长镜头!

我很确定你的时候就无法挽回。

真的需要优秀的工作人员和演员才能完成长镜头的拍摄。一场戏的时间越长,难度越大。最好的学习方法是研究电影大师,特别是奥森威尔斯。

嗯,就是这样!三个镜头系统绝对能让你成功的学会如何用镜头覆盖一个场景。保存此备忘单到手机上,不用再害怕了。

现在就去拍一个对话场景吧!

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

**Foley**


A sound effects technique for synchronous effects or live effects.

The Foley technique are named for Jack Foley, a sound editor at Universal Studios

Foley artists match live sound effects with the action of the picture.

The sound effects are laid "manually" and not cut in with film.

Foleying is an excellent means of supplying the subtle sounds that production mikes often miss. The rustling of clothing and a queak of a saddle when a rider mounts his horse give a scene a touch of realism that is difficult to provide using other effects methods. A steamy sex scene was probably created by a foley artist making dispassionate love to his or her own wrist.

The good Foley artist must "became" the actor with whom they are synching effects or the sounds will lack the necessary realism to be convincing.

Most successful Foley artists are audiles; they can look at an object and imagine what type of sound it can be made to produce.

The **foley crew **will include the artist or "walker," who makes the sound, and a technician or two to record and mix it.

A foley stage often appear to be storage areas for the studio's unwanted junk. Metal laundry tubes are filled to the brim with metal trays, tin pie plates, empty soda cans, hubcaps, bedpans, knives, forks and broken staple guns. These crash tubes are used for anything from comedy crashes to adding presence (brightness and naturalness) to something as serious as a car crash.

Embedded in the floor is the heart of any Foley stage - the walking surfaces (for the production of all types of footsteps)


Visit Foley Artistry - Articles about Foley


Site Map

First version of this page 23/3 1997

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

使用技巧

  • 快捷键⌘ + T设置自定义缩略图
  • 在项目设置里可以定义默认缩略图的选取位置,开头,中间,结尾。
  • Control+Command+rerurn设置画面的打板位置
  • 如果是两个组同时拍摄,但是只有一个软件授权,这种情况需要另一个组的素材导入软件,跳过拷贝即可。
  • 在拷贝紧张的情况下,可设置第一拷贝和第二拷贝,用最快速度拷贝完,之后自动进行其他拷贝。
  • 暂停复制或意外造成退出,连接好设备后可继续复制没有拷贝完的内容。
  • 如果要优先用阵列转码,则可以先给阵列快速拷贝转码之后,再在软件里备份功能备份到其他两个硬盘。这样也保证了三备份的,报表也有显示。
2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

景别的使用

随着人物对话的深入采用恰当的景别,展现人物动作的时候适当使用相应的景别表现动作

特写

全景

中景

近景

比如想突出人物内心活动的时候用特写,

突出人物在公众面前的角色时候用宽一点的景别

当情绪激烈的时候,特写镜头景别可以一直递进,当情绪需要稍微放松或有转折点的时候切出大一点的景别,所谓让观众有呼吸,这也是节奏的感觉。

剪之前,先了解这场戏的功能是什么,主角的心理和动机是什么,

故事发展的脉络

人物之间的化学反应

道具的铺垫和寓意

人物动机的铺垫和转变

不能被素材带着走

要预先想结构,节奏,事件,动作发生的顺序,然后再替换表演。

需要我们认真对待所有的人民财产和他们所享有的价值,你好我们有非常多的使用价值和空间。

案例一:

视角的使用

通过某个角色或者某一群人的视角来带入观众体验看到的情节

视角的局限性也是观众的带入感,观众看到的就是主角看到的

对话镜头与反应镜头的使用

角色A强调自己的主观意愿的时候用角色A的对话镜头

当角色A提到角色B,并想让角色B有所想法的时候用角色B的反应镜头

眨眼之间,当角色眨眼就是一个剪辑点,眨眼前切或者眨眼之后再切

Editing cuts剪辑技法

Straight cut直切– most common, joins two pieces of film

Jump cut 跳切– camera films same spot without changing angles as it moves in or out - disruption in spatial continuity, also accepted for compressing time

Editing transitions in the lab

Fade in 淡入– slowly come into frame from black

Fade out 淡出– slowly leave frame going to black

Dissolve 融合– one image “dissolves” into another which implies more than a visual connection - relationship

Flip, Wipe (etc) – old style, fun, very cinematic

Freeze frame 冻结帧– optical, tension with resolution, how does story end?

(“Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid”)

Split Screen – screen is divided into two or more scenes

Match Cut 匹配剪切– when two images of similar size & balance are cut together

音乐的使用

Master shot 主镜头– editing term – a shot that films the action from start to stop. Inserts, close-ups etc are then cut in when needed

Rules for coverage 覆盖镜头的规律

Move in

Start with an extreme long shot to set the scene.

hash="05932c2ada7cec3bffe27529ac1a8cdb" type="imag 17px; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em;">Introduce people with long shots and mid shots.

Then use closeups to show their expressions.

These shot sizes are explained in more detail here.

Make sure you use different camera positions around, above or below the subject as well. If you shoot everything from the same position the camera will appear to ‘jump’ forward. There’s more about this, and other continuityrules, here.

Starting with closeups 从特写开始

You could go the other way round.

idth="320" />Start with a closeup, or a series of closeups.

This is a good way to add anticipation, and maybe mystery, to a scene.You could go the other way round.

Then cut to mid and long shots to show the bigger picture.

This is a good way to add anticipation, and maybe mystery, to a scene.

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

工具

快捷键

说明

插入

W

设置片段的出入点后插入到时间线中

覆盖

D

设置片段的出入点后覆盖到时间线中的片段

粘贴属性

Command+Shift+V

将某片段的效果复制到其他片段

选择片段

T

可将播放头位置的片段选择,以便进行快速的操作(不用鼠标点选片段)

剪断/剪断全部

B/Command+B

将时间线中的单个片段或多个片段剪断,以便删除或剪切

匹配帧

F

找到时间线中片段的原始素材

修剪开头/结尾

[ ]

快速删除

左右移动一帧

< >

微调片段出入点

扩展编辑

\

将片段的开头或结尾扩展到时间线播放头位置

全屏显示

Command+F

显示完整时间线

Shift+Z

放大缩小时间线

  • -

标记

M

标记片段或时间线,以便查找片段和重要信息和智能输出标记的信息

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

![](resources/B6E854E167450FB3CE739EDC02F4F084.png)

  • V15-V16 两个新特效轨道
  • V14 一个DI轨道
  • V12-V13 两个特效板轨
  • V10-V11 两个特效字幕轨道
  • V9 一个剪辑提示轨 Subcap
  • V8 一个字幕轨
  • V7 一个Avid调色轨
  • V5-V6 两个特效轨 VFX shots from outside vendors,有时候需要重叠所以有两个
  • V3-V4 两个Avid特效轨Avid FX or temp effects.
  • V1-V2 两个视频轨drama plates.

  • A1-A4 四个单声道对白轨
  • A5 一个多声道对白合成轨 例如TCG_R1V7.4_71_DX_STEM_24fps_060717_1.waw
  • A6-A10 四个单声道动效轨
  • A11-A14 四个单声道环境音轨
  • A16 一个多声道动效合成轨
  • A17 一个多声道环境音合成轨
  • A18-A20 三个双声道音乐轨
  • A21 一个多声道音乐合成轨
  • A22 一个多声道全部混合轨

颜色标记

时间线中片段可标记为不同的颜色,方便识别和查找。

时间线的命名

案例中时间线的名称为“Timeline - Reel 1 v10.1—V9 DI as of 141217“这代表着这是卷一的第10.1个版本,调光版本是14年12月17号的第九版本。

时间线中音频波形的显示

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

dit组长

顺线员

视效合成,现场调色

天工qtake2人。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

01-创建剪辑硬盘文件夹

01、首先建立一个母文件夹(建议用英文字母)

比如:功夫熊猫 或者 GFXM

02、再建立如下子文件夹

  • 01_Projects(工程文件)
  • 02_Video(视频素材)
  • 03_Audio(声音素材)
  • 04_Music(音乐素材)
  • 05_Sound Effects(音效素材)
  • 06_VFX(视效素材)
  • 08_Stock footage(影视素材)
  • 06_Turnovers(交付文件)
  • 07_Docs(文档素材)

02-创建剪辑软件文件夹

在剪辑软件建立如下文件夹

  • 01_CUTS(剪辑的时间线)
  • 02_Scenes(场景)
  • 03_Music(音乐)
  • 04_Audio(声音)
  • 05_SFX(音效)
  • 06_VFX(特效)
  • 07_Titles+Graphics(字幕和图像)
  • 08_Stock footage(影视素材)
  • 09_Turnovers(交付)
  • 10_Pre-viz+Post-viz(视觉预览)
  • 11_The Basement:+Master Dailies,+Sync Dailies(基本文件)

03-创建剪辑软件时间线轨道

  • V15-V16 两个新特效轨道
  • V14 一个DI轨道
  • V12-V13 两个特效板轨
  • Background plate 背景特效素材
  • Foreground plate 前景特效素材
  • V10-V11 两个特效字幕轨道
  • V9 一个剪辑提示轨 Subcap
  • V8 一个字幕轨
  • V7 一个Avid调色轨
  • V5-V6 两个特效轨 VFX shots from outside vendors,有时候需要重叠所以有两个
  • V3-V4 两个Avid特效轨Avid FX or temp effects.
  • V1-V2 两个视频轨drama plates.

  • A1-A4 四个单声道对白轨
  • A5 一个多声道对白合成轨 例如TCG_R1V7.4_71_DX_STEM_24fps_060717_1.waw
  • A6-A10 四个单声道动效轨
  • A11-A14 四个单声道环境音轨
  • A16 一个多声道动效合成轨
  • A17 一个多声道环境音合成轨
  • A18-A20 三个双声道音乐轨
  • A21 一个多声道音乐合成轨
  • A22 一个多声道全部混合轨
2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

完整剪辑硬件配置

硬件数量单位品牌型号用途Mac Pro

1

台Apple六核双显卡剪辑主机

小显示器

2

Dell

27寸显示器

分别显示时间线和片段

大显示器(可选)

1

全屏预览

鼠标键盘

1

Apple

带数字键

手绘板(可选)

1

磁盘阵列

1

G-Technology

12T双盘雷电3

储存剪辑项目资产(DIT代理文件,项目文件等)

监听音箱

1

监听耳机(可选)

1

Sony

MDR-7506

便携剪辑硬件配置

硬件

数量

单位

品牌型号

用途

Macbook Pro

1

台Apple

2016

剪辑主机

显示器(可选)

1

台Dell

24寸

全屏预览

鼠标键盘

1

套Apple蓝牙

移动硬盘

1

Lacie

USB-C 4T储存现场剪辑项目资产(qtake录机代理文件,项目文件等)磁盘阵列(可选)

1

个G-Technology12T双盘雷电3

储存剪辑项目资产(DIT代理文件,项目文件等)

监听耳机

1

Sony

MDR-7506

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  剪辑

44.1KHZ不能导入到设置为48KHZ的剪辑软件中,可能造成长度不一致,声音爆音的情况。

Wild Sound 指的是除了现场镜头同期录制之外的所有声音,包括了补录的对白,录制的环境音,录制的房间噪音(Room Tones)

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

阿莱摄影机支持的储存卡(随着固件更新会有所变化,参考官网)

储存卡说明价格和读取速度

  • **LEXAR **256GB 4300元 read speed of up to 540 MB/s and write speed of up to 445 MB/s
  • SanDisk 512GB 6300元 read speed of up to 525 MB/s and write speed of up to 450 MB/s

iv>

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

现场dit设备清单

15寸苹果笔记本一台,硬盘底座一个,UPS电源一个,插排一个

驻组dit设备清单

六核苹果垃圾桶一台(用于转码),显示器一个,标签打印机一个

驻组剪辑设备清单

六核苹果垃圾桶一台(用于剪辑),显示器两台,阵列一台。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  摄影

郭境熙

1. 引言

在磁带录音时代,电影的同期录音是Nagra的天下,那个时候的Nagra磁带录音机能提供两通道的录制。随着时代的发展,数字录音机渐渐成为时代的中坚力量,从最初的Sony PCM-1数字便携录音机到现在的Sound Devices 688、 Aaton CantarX3等多轨数字录音机,便携式录音机能提供的录制通道越来越多。这也对影视制作的同期录音工作习惯产生不小影响,曾经同期录音师需要把多支话筒拾取的声音混录成两轨,记录在只有两轨的录音机上,多轨录音机的出现允许录音师在同期阶段,把各支麦克风的信号分配给独立的通道,这样就能保证各个话筒的信号得到最好的保留,也给声音后期的制作留下了更大的空间。

2. 现状

这种多通道的录音方式会给剪辑师甚至是录音师自己带来预料以外的麻烦。我们可以料想,一个剪辑师在进行真人秀的项目的剪辑时,录音师同期纪录下动辄二三十条的轨道对剪辑师来说是不小的挑战。无论是进行视频与音频的同步过程,还是剪辑过程中对剪辑片段的选取和移动,轻微的操作失误都会导致轨道上的音频素材与画面失去同步,更严重的是有可能会导致部分音频轨道的丢失,给后续的声音后期工作带来困扰。除此以外,大量的音频轨道也会占用大部分剪辑软件界面的操作空间。

3. Field Recorder Workflow

目前Avid Prot Tools提供了一套名为Field Recorder Workflow的工作流程,该功能为Protools HD独有,可以解决因为同期记录下轨道过多而导致的上述问题。这套流程需要录音师在录制过程中,录制两种格式的素材,一种是正常的Poly格式的文件,另一种的MixLR格式的文件。Poly格式的文件包含了各个音轨独立的内容,是留给声音后期部门使用的格式;而MixLR格式则包含在同期录制过程中在录音机混录成的立体声的轨道,这种格式用于交付剪辑进行音视频同步和剪辑。

剪辑师在剪辑过程中,只需使用MixL与MixR两轨进行剪辑,时间线上不会出现多轨同期音轨的情况,这样能降低剪辑师在剪辑过程中对声音轨道操作的复杂程度。在剪辑定剪以后,通过AAF进行将声音片段与序列从剪辑软件传递到Pro Tools中,在Pro Tools的工作环境中后期声音编辑可以使用“回套”的方式,依照MixLR上的元数据将Poly文件回套到时间线上。这样声音部门就可以得到完整的原始素材了。

4. 同期流程

元数据

元数据的记录是整个流程最重要的一个环节,在同期拍摄阶段,录音师要在录音机上记录下后期所需要用到的元数据,具体内容与设置流程如下(以Sound Device 688为例)。

01 时间码

先将外部时间码插接在录音机的TC输入口上,在录音机System菜单中找到Timecode选项,将Timecode运行模式设置为Ext(外部时间码模式)。部分录音机还提供Ext/Count模式,这个模式下机器内的时间码信号会基于外部时间码源,如果外部时间码源断开,机器内部的时间码会从相同的数值开始继续运转,不会因为外部时间码的断开而造成时间码信号丢失。

02 User-bit

在Timecode页面下,有一个名为User-bit的选项,这个选项允许录音师自定义一串八位的数字串,格式为uu-uu-uu-uu,给时间码增加除时间信息以外的标记,在工作中一般习惯用于记录日期信息。

03 轨道名称

在File Storage页面中,在Next-take层级下有一个选项可以设置每一个输入通道的轨道名字,这个名字能在Pro tools轨道中显示,能帮助检查是否回套成功。

04 场镜号(Screen)

在File Storage页面中,在Next-take层级下有一个选项可以设置下一条音频文件的场号。在同期录音时,笔者习惯将场-景以数字+字母的形式组合命名,如第一场第一镜,笔者会设置为01A,第一场第二镜笔者会设置为01B,依次类推。

05 次号(Take)

因为提前打开了次号重制设置,每一次更换场镜号的时候,录音机都会提示“是否重置次号”,所以这个数据基本不需要手动操作。

06 声音卷号(Sound Roll)

声音卷号这个参数在688中不经过特别设置,在Pro tools中会显示成nnYmmMdd这种年月日的格式,其中的日期内容会自动设置成录音机设置的日期,所以在整备阶段需要将所有设备的日期、时间与时区设置准确。

这些元数据会内嵌在每一个音频文件中,这些信息将被用于后期回套。

wav文件的记录格式

录音师还需要设置wav文件的格式,大多数专业级录音机都带双卡或储存卡+硬盘这种双盘备份的格式,单个wav文件存储单次开机的多个轨道储存前提下,一般情况下,会有两种较为推荐的设置方式:

01

每个独立的储存载体都设置记录Poly+MixLR的wav文件,两个存储载体中都完全记录全部的轨道内容,这种设置的好处是能保证在录制过程中,有一样的两份的备份,不会因为单个储存载体出错而丢失声音内容。其缺点在于剪辑师在剪辑过程的开始阶段,需要使用所有的轨道进行同步,然后将分轨内容删除,只留下MixL和MixR轨道作为剪辑参考。

02

储存载体1上记录下Poly格式的文件,储存载体2上记录下MixLR格式的文件。在拍摄完成阶段,Poly格式素材归声音部门保存管理,MixLR格式素材归剪辑部门管理。这种储存的优点是:剪辑师在剪辑的全阶段,无论是同步还是剪辑,只需要面对MixL和MixR两轨道的素材。

5. 后期流程

剪辑部门的工作流程

由于现代摄影机的不断进步,能记录下的画面分辨率和色彩深度数据越来越高,视频素材的数据量也越来越大,所以在视频剪辑开始之前,需要先将原始视频转换为代理文件。在以往很多案例中,因为生成代理的流程与合板流程的准备不充分,很可能会导致最终时间线上的声音素材无法回套。

目前常见的工艺流程会出现这样的情况,DIT部门会在拍摄现场将当日的视频与音频进行备份和同步,同步完成后直接在类如SilverStack这类的素材管理软件下导出剪辑部门需要使用的代理文件。这套流程在目前的工艺下是没有问题的,原因是视频部门会使用Poly格式的音频文件进行同步,经过转码生成的视频代理文件中也会带有多个轨道,剪辑部门导出AAF文件传递给声音部门,声音部门可以顺利的将这些数据导入自己的工作站中。

但是如笔者前文所述,一旦轨道数目过多,这种多轨剪辑的形式会给剪辑部门造成困扰,例如:有的场景只有6轨声音,在另外的场景中却有12轨声音,声音在时间线上的错乱不光会影响剪辑师的工作效率,还有可能会导致音频素材被误清理。

所以才需要使用Field Recorder Workflow这套工艺,使用这套工艺如果还沿用之前的同步与代理流程就会出现回套失败的结果。原因是合板过后,得到的代理文件将会是一个视频文件,里面的元数据储存格式只能存储视频本身的元数据,原始声音文件中的元数据会丢失,进入Protools以后就无法回套了。

新的工艺需要将合板与生成代理的这两个流程的步骤先后调换一下,DIT部门可以在现场完成备份后,直接进行代理的生成,剪辑部门使用代理文件直接与同期录音部门的音轨在剪辑软件中进行同步,同步结束后只保留MixLR两轨进行剪辑。

剪辑部门确认导出方式

完成剪辑的时间线需要通过AAF文件传递给声音部门,以Avid Media Composer为例,导出设置如图1,经过多次实验,笔者发现只有将音频导出方式设置为复制所有媒体,可以顺利地将音频元数据传递到AAF文件中。

图1,Media Composer AAF 导出设置

声音部门的工作流程

在Protools HD里新建一个工程,导入剪辑部门提供的AAF文件,在导入的声音轨道中选择同期录制的MixL或MixR轨,并将此轨道设置成同期参考录制轨道,选择声音回套需要参照的元数据和时间码,最后选择以匹配条件扩充轨道,就能顺利完成回套。

6. 案例

以下笔者将以项目《课间休息》作为工艺中各个步骤操作的范例。

在同期阶段,笔者使用Sound Device 688这个型号的录音机,外部时间码发生器选择了Tentacle Sync Original,这款时间码发生器可以通过线缆给录音机与摄影机不间断的馈送时间码信号。每天开机与休息时间,录音部门会对各个部门的时间码发生器进行同步。

话筒选择了两支森海塞尔MKH60搭配莱克直插式发射机、四套Sanken领夹话筒搭配莱克无线发射器。由于各个场景中演员的数量会不断发生变化,每一场Poly轨道上记录下的轨道也不尽相同。一般场景中会同时使用一支MKH60和两对无线领夹话筒,每个演员会有他自己的对应的无线话筒,相当于每个演员在录音机上都有固定记录的轨道,最终这个场景会有三个轨道记录在Poly文件中。对于演员比较多的场景,会同时使用到所有的话筒,这样Poly文件下就会同时记录下六轨音频文件,同样的新增出来的演员的信号也会有固定记录的轨道。

根据笔者的工作习惯,笔者将所有的Boom的信号都发送给MixL,所有的无线领夹话筒都发送到MixR,MixLR的信号储存在688的SD卡上,Poly格式的音频文件单独记录在CF卡中,Poly轨道所记录下的为对应输入口的推前信号。因为两张卡都是在同一台机器上记录的,开机的时间也是同时的,所以两张卡上的轨道内容虽然不一样,但是两张卡对应素材的所有的元数据和素材的开始时间码都是一模一样的。

在拍摄的过程中,笔者按照每一场戏给素材进行命名,命名格式为Sxx_00y,Sxx代表xx场,_00y代表第y次,这样每一条因为文件都会记录下Scene和Take的元数据。将Sound Roll设置为跟随日期,所有的Sound Roll元数据都会设置为当天的日期。

记录下的音频素材在Protools的Workspace可以查看当声音文件的元数据,图2是《课间休息》同期录制的声音素材以及所有元数据。

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图2,课间休息元数据

在Protools菜单中,沿着View-Clip勾选Scene And Take、Channel Name,轨道上的Clip中能看到每一个Clip中的场号与次号以及对应的轨道名称,可以通过Clip中这些名字的显示与否来判断元数据是否被传递和保留。

图3,导入AAF后轨道示例

在图3中,CAM_Mic1与CAM_Mic2是机内录下来的声音,Mix_L与Mix_R轨道是剪辑用于同步的MixLR录音素材。笔者使用Mix_L作为回套的参考轨道。

首先,右击轨道名称,选择Field Recorder Guide Track,再次右击轨道名称,可以选择的项目变多了。此时点击Field Recorder Channels Match Criteria...指定用于回套的元数据限定条件,这个限定条件决定了最终回套的时候Protools所参照的元数据,见图4,在选项中没有Timecode和user bit这两个选项,但是这两个值是隐藏的默认选项。经过多次实验,笔者选择使用Scene、Take、Sound Roll作为回套的依据,同时页面上部的条件也选择为“Any”,“Any”意味着只要Clip中任意一项元数据能够匹配路径中的原始数据,素材就被认为是能配对的。

再点击Select Areas to Search...,弹出的窗口用于指定原始Poly文件的路径,在这个项目中,就是笔者CF卡记录下的素材的路径。

图5,Select Areas to Search 界面

所有的设置都完成后,最终点击Expand Channels To New Tracks-By Match Criteria,只要是元数据保存完整,Poly文件中各个通道都会排列在各自的轨道上,片段的长度以及顺序严格按照MixLR轨道上的片段排列。如图6所示:

图6,回套完成的轨道界面

7. 结语

剪辑部门目前需要面对的轨道数目实在太多,不光需要面对同期拍摄记录下的视频与音频轨道,还需要在剪辑阶段自行添加声音效果,这无疑大大加重剪辑师的操作难度。Field Recorder Workflow这套工作流程能大大降低剪辑师的时间线上的音轨数量,也能使得声音部门顺利保全所有同期记录下的素材,在编辑阶段出现了需要使用替换条的情况,声音编辑也能通过Clip上的场镜号,快速从同期素材文件夹中寻找同镜素材。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  声音

影片初审

影片摄制完成后,制片方须登录广电总局官网“电影电子政务平台”,填写“影片送审”栏目,逐项填写完毕后提交,并按说明下载、打印相应的文件(以下2、3、4、5、6、7项)。应将以下资料提交省级广电部门审查。

1、数字电影送高清数字节目带(HDCAM)一套;胶片电影送混录双片一套(或BETA 带);

2、《国产影片审查报批表》一式三份,须加盖第一出品单位的公章;

3、《主创人员登记表》一份;

4、影片片名英文译名的报告,请提交省级广电部门批复同意;

5、影片如需变更片名,请提交省级广电部门批复同意;

6、影片如需增加、变更出品单位的,须提前申报,并经省级广电部门批复同意;

7、影片聘请境外主创人员,请提交省级广电部门批复;

8、影片完成台本的电子文档(附光盘);

9、交回该片的《电影剧本(梗概)备案回执单》或《摄制电影片许可证(单片)》;

省级广电部门或电影审查委员会审查合格的,发给《影片审查决定书》;审查不合格或需要修改的,应在《影片审查决定书》及《影片审查意见表》中做出说明,或修改完成后发放《影片审查决定书》。

领取片头

影片经省级广电部门审查通过后,可持以下材料至总局电影局办理领取《电影片公映许可证》片头(即龙标)手续。

1、影片DVD一套(已按省级广电部门的意见修改完毕);

2、省级广电部门出具的《影片审查决定书》(须加盖电影审查委员会或省级广电部门公章);

3、省级广电部门出具的《影片审查意见表》(需领导签字、加盖电影审查委员会或省级广电部门公章);

4、《国产影片审查报批表》一式二份(须加盖第一出品单位公章;电影审查委员会或省级广电部门公章)并附电子文档(光盘);

5、《主要创作人员登记表》一份并附电子文档(光盘);

6、省级广电部门同意更改影片片名的批复;

7、省级广电部门同意影片英文片名批复;

8、省级广电部门同意增加、变更出品单位、摄制单位的批复,及联合出品、摄制合同(出品人数量与出品单位数量须相符);

9、省级广电部门同意聘请境外主创人员的批复;

10、影片完成台本的电子文档(附光盘);

11、影片如系特殊题材(如公安、司法、少数民族等),需提供相关单位的协审意见;

12、交回该片的《摄制电影许可证(单片)》或《电影剧本(梗概)备案回执单》原件或复印件;

13、经办人领取电影片头的授权书(须加盖第一出品单位公章)。

以上材料经核准无误后,发放影片片头。

影片终审

领取《电影片公映许可证》片头(即龙标)后,请将以下材料提交广电总局,进行影片终审。审查合格的,发放《电影片公映许可证》和《数字电影技术合格证》。(以下所有影片格式均须加《电影片公映许可证》片头(即龙标),中文片名下须加注英文译名,出品人数量须与出品单位数量一致。在每套带子、光盘与包装盒的正面、侧面均须贴有片名及出品方的标签;)

1、数字电影母版一套(如D5带、HDSR带、数字硬盘等)或标准拷贝一套。

2、送审的数字母版须提交《电影片数字母版制作送审单》,标准拷贝须提交《送审标准拷贝技术鉴定书》。如送缴影片仅为标准拷贝,则须另有中国电影资料馆出具的收到标准拷贝的回执;

3、影片HDCAM或BETA带一盘;

4、影片DVD三套;

5、影片宣传片一套(长度约为10~15分钟,光盘);

6、影片国际乐效一套(光盘);

7、影片如有修改,请送交最终完成台本的电子文档(光盘);

8、相关剧照和海报,并附电子文件(光盘);

9、如涉及多家出品单位或联合摄制单位,请提交出品、摄制单位之间的合同原件或复印件;

10、经办人领取公映许可证的授权书(须加盖第一出品单位公章);

11、影片字幕制作须参照《国产电影片字幕管理规定》及《关于规范电影片署名相关事项的通知》。

如果影片已在省级广电部门进行技审,请将以上材料及《数字电影技术合格证》送交广电总局。

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  发行

英文片名需要申请20个工作日

如有主创是港澳台以及外籍人士需要申请20个工作日

第一次审片是当地广电局,例如北京广电局,提交后30个工作日

注意:送审版中钢丝需擦除

2020/02/01 11:44 AM posted in  发行

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2020/01/31 17:08 PM